Abstract

We theoretically investigate a tensile strained GeSn waveguide integrated with Si3N4 liner stressor for the applications in mid-infrared (MIR) detector and modulator. A substantial tensile strain is induced in a 1 × 1 μm2 GeSn waveguide by the expansion of 500 nm Si3N4 liner stressor and the contour plots of strain are simulated by the finite element simulation. Under the tensile strain, the direct bandgap EG of GeSn is significantly reduced by lowering the Γ conduction valley in energy and lifting of degeneracy of valence bands. Absorption coefficients of tensile strained GeSn waveguides with different Sn compositions are calculated. As the Si3N4 liner stressor expands by 1%, the cut-off wavelengths of tensile strained Ge0.97Sn0.03, Ge0.95Sn0.05, and Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide photodetectors are extended to 2.32, 2.69, and 4.06 μm, respectively. Tensile strained Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide electro-absorption modulator based on Franz-Keldysh (FK) effect is demonstrated in theory. External electric field dependence of cut-off wavelength and propagation loss of tensile strained Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide is observed, due to the FK effect.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7-nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Brouillet, A. Salas, X. Wang, and J. Liu, “Low temperature growth of high crystallinity GeSn on amorphous layers for advanced optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1385–1396 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndez, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Group IV photonics for the mid infrared,” Proc. SPIE 8629, 862902 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1-ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061109 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double-heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G.-E. Chang, S.-W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-balanced GezSn1-z-SixGeySn1-x-y multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

L. Tsybeskov, D. J. Lockwood, and M. Ichikawa, “Silicon photonics: CMOS going optical,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1161–1165 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikaw, and K. Wad, “Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Ridene, K. Boujdaria, H. Bouchriha, and G. Fishman, “Infrared absorption in Si/Si1-xGex/Si quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085329 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S.-H. Wei and A. Zunger, “Predicted band-gap pressure coefficients of all diamond and zinc-blende semiconductors: chemical trends,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5404–5411 (1999).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

M. Chandrasekhar and F. H. Pollak, “Effects of uniaxial stress on the electroreflectance spectrum of Ge and GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 15(4), 2127–2144 (1977).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Avci, U. E.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

Beals, M.

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
[Crossref]

Beeler, R. T.

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndez, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, R. T. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Direct gap electroluminescence from Si/Ge1-ySny p-i-n heterostructure diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

Bouchriha, H.

S. Ridene, K. Boujdaria, H. Bouchriha, and G. Fishman, “Infrared absorption in Si/Si1-xGex/Si quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boujdaria, K.

S. Ridene, K. Boujdaria, H. Bouchriha, and G. Fishman, “Infrared absorption in Si/Si1-xGex/Si quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 64(8), 085329 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Brouillet, J.

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q.

Capellini, G.

Cea, S.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, M.

M. Chandrasekhar and F. H. Pollak, “Effects of uniaxial stress on the electroreflectance spectrum of Ge and GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 15(4), 2127–2144 (1977).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-E.

G.-E. Chang, S.-W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-balanced GezSn1-z-SixGeySn1-x-y multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-W.

G.-E. Chang, S.-W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Strain-balanced GezSn1-z-SixGeySn1-x-y multiple-quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1813–1820 (2010).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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M. Liu, G. Han, Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Y. Hao, “Undoped Ge0.92Sn0.08 quantum well pMOSFETs on (001), (011) and (111) substrates with in situ Si2H6 passivation: high hole mobility and dependence of performance on orientation,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

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D’Costa, V. R.

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Ghrib, A.

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Gollhofer, M.

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Guo, P.

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Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7-nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
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M. Liu, G. Han, Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Y. Hao, “Undoped Ge0.92Sn0.08 quantum well pMOSFETs on (001), (011) and (111) substrates with in situ Si2H6 passivation: high hole mobility and dependence of performance on orientation,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Hao, Y.

M. Liu, G. Han, Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Y. Hao, “Undoped Ge0.92Sn0.08 quantum well pMOSFETs on (001), (011) and (111) substrates with in situ Si2H6 passivation: high hole mobility and dependence of performance on orientation,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Harris, J. S.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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Hitzman, C.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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Hu, J.

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Huang, Y.-C.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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Jiang, L.

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndez, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
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J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
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R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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Kaschel, M.

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R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
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J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
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L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
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P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikaw, and K. Wad, “Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
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M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, K. Ye, D. Widmann, R. Koerner, S. Bechler, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “Franz-Keldysh effect in GeSn pin photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161115 (2014).
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R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
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Kouvetakis, J.

R. T. Beeler, J. Gallagher, C. Xu, L. Jiang, C. L. Senaratne, D. J. Smith, J. Menéndez, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Band gap-engineered group-IV optoelectronic semiconductors, photodiodes and prototype photovoltaic devices,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. and Technol. 2(9), Q172–Q177 (2013).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
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J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
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Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuhn, K. J.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
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Kung, C.-C.

Kuroyanagi, R.

Kwong, D. L.

A. E. J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Germanium electro-absorption modulator for power efficient optical links,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Conference. (IEEE, 2011), pp. 105–108.
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Li, H.

Li, L.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
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Li, X.

M. Liu, G. Han, Y. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Wang, X. Li, J. Zhang, B. Cheng, and Y. Hao, “Undoped Ge0.92Sn0.08 quantum well pMOSFETs on (001), (011) and (111) substrates with in situ Si2H6 passivation: high hole mobility and dependence of performance on orientation,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–2.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E. J.

A. E. J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Germanium electro-absorption modulator for power efficient optical links,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Conference. (IEEE, 2011), pp. 105–108.
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P. H. Lim, Y. Kobayashi, S. Takita, Y. Ishikaw, and K. Wad, “Enhanced photoluminescence from germanium-based ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041103 (2008).
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Lin, A. C.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, P. T.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
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Linton, T. D.

R. Kotlyar, U. E. Avci, S. Cea, R. Rios, T. D. Linton, K. J. Kuhn, and I. A. Young, “Bandgap engineering of group IV materials for complementary n and p tunneling field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113106 (2013).
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Liow, T.-Y.

A. E. J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Germanium electro-absorption modulator for power efficient optical links,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics Conference. (IEEE, 2011), pp. 105–108.
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Liu, J.

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Zhang, G.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 3D schematic of GeSn on SOUP waveguide integrated with the Si3N4 liner stressor. (b) GeSn waveguide is stretched with the expansion of Si3N4 liner stressor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 3D schematic of Si3N4 liner stressor wrapped around GeSn on SOUP waveguide and the key geometric parameters. Coordinate axes are also shown. Contour plots for (b) ε[100], (c) ε[010], and (d) ε[001] in AA’ plane and (e) ε[100], (f) ε[010], and (g) ε[001] in BB’ plane in GeSn waveguide region.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 E-k energy band diagrams of (a) unstrained Ge0.97Sn0.03, (b) tensile strained Ge0.97Sn0.03, (c) unstrained Ge0.95Sn0.05, (d) tensile strained Ge0.95Sn0.05, (e) unstrained Ge0.90Sn0.10, and (f) tensile strained Ge0.90Sn0.10. Decreasing of the energy of Γ and L conduction valleys and splitting of HH and LH bands are observed in the tensile strained GeSn with various compositions. Spin-orbit (SO) split in the valence band is shown.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of EG and EG,L of relaxed GeSn and tensile strained GeSn waveguide wrapped in Si3N4 liner stressor, showing the significant band gap reduction for tensile strained GeSn waveguides over the relaxed GeSn devices.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-section of tensile strained GeSn on SOUP waveguide, which is butt-coupled to Si waveguide.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Calculated absorption spectra for relaxed and tensile strained Ge0.97Sn0.03, Ge0.95Sn0.05, and Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide photodetectors. The cut-off wavelength of GeSn is significantly extended to MIR due to the tensile strain induced by Si3N4 liner stressor.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 α as a function of wavelength for Ge0.97Sn0.03, Ge0.95Sn0.05, and Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguides at different electric fields. For all the samples, the shift of cut-off wavelength to MIR is observed with the increase of external electric field.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Mode profiles of both TE and TM modes at different wavelengths in Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide. Single mode transmission is demonstrated.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Propagation loss of (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode in tensile strained Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide at various biases. Propagation loss of GeSn device exhibits the wavelength dependence. Propagation loss increases with the increasing of external electric field due to the FK effect, which will improve the modulation depth of Ge0.90Sn0.10 waveguide electro-absorption modulator.

Equations (4)

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α μ 3/2 ( ω E G,Γ ) 1/2
α( ω )= α b 4π ( e 2 F 2 2 2μ ) 1/6 ( 2μ 2 ) 3/2 { β Ai 2 ( β )+ | Ai'( β ) | 2 }
α b = 2π e 2 E G,Γ ( E G,Γ +Δ ) 3n ε 0 ωc m e ( E G,Γ + 2Δ /3 )
β=( E G,Γ ω ) ( 2μ e 2 2 F 2 ) 1/3 ,

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