Abstract

In this paper, we design a biaxial tensile strained GeSn photodetector with fin structure wrapped in Si3N4 liner stressor. A large biaxial tensile strain is induced in GeSn fins by the expansion of Si3N4 liner stressor. The distribution of tensile strain in GeSn fins was calculated by a finite element simulation. It is observed that magnitude of the strain increases with the reduction of fin thickness Tfin. Under the biaxial tensile strain, the direct band gap EG,Γ of GeSn fin photodetector is significantly reduced by lowering Γ conduction valley in energy and lifting of degeneracy of valence bands. As the 30 nm Si3N4 liner stressor expanses by 1%, a EG,Γ reduction of ~0.14 eV is achieved in Ge0.92Sn0.08 fins with a Tfin of 100 nm. The cut-off wavelengths of strained Ge0.96Sn0.04, Ge0.92Sn0.08 and Ge0.90Sn0.10 fin photodetectors with a Tfin of 100 nm are extended to 2.4, 3.3, and 4 μm, respectively. GeSn fin photodetector integrated with Si3N4 liner stressor provides an effective technique for extending the absorption edge of GeSn with Sn composition less than 10% to mid-infrared wavelength.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, and T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photon. Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G.-E. Chang, S.-W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory for n-type doped, tensile-strained Ge-SixGeySn1-x-y quantum-well lasers at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11246–11258 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Agnello, P.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Ahn, D.

Arguirov, T.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, and T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photon. Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

Beaudoin, G.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Bechler, S.

Beeler, R. T.

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Black, L.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Bonnoit, A.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Bryant, A.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
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J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
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M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
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Harris, J. S.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Hitzman, C.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
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R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
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R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
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Kärtner, F. X.

Kaschel, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, and T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photon. Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khare, M.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kittler, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, and T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photon. Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

Körner, R.

Körner, R. A.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kostecki, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kouvetakis, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuroyanagi, R.

Laux, S. E.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-H.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Li, C.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Lin, A. C.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loo, R.

Lu, Q.

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luan, H. C.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luning, S.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Magyari-Köpe, B.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Mashanov, V.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mathews, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

Menendez, J.

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Menéndez, J.

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mo, R. T.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Moroz, V.

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Naeem, M.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Narcy, G.

Ndong, G.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Nguyen, L. M.

Nishi, Y.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oehme, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Kasper, M. Kittler, M. Oehme, and T. Arguirov, “Germanium tin: silicon photonics toward the mid-infrared,” Photon. Res. 1(2), 69–76 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Panda, S.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Prost, M.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Roucka, R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Sanchez, E.

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sheraw, C. D.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

Smith, D. J.

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, L.

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stange, D.

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Su, S.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, C.-Y.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Tiedemann, A. T.

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Tolle, J.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tseng, H. H.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Ulbricht, K.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vincent, B.

Vulovic, B. M.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Widmann, D.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

Xie, J.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xue, C.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, H.

Yamada, K.

Yang, M.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. J.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ye, K.

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.-Q.

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, X.

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zuo, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Xie, S.-Q. Yu, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Extended performance GeSn/Si(100) p-i-n photodetectors for full spectral range telecommunication applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 133506 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, C. Xue, B. Cheng, S. Su, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. Li, and Q. Wang, “High-responsivity GeSn short-wave infrared p-i-n photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(14), 141111 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(23), 231907 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141110 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “Efficient high-speed near-infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1231–1233 (2000).
[Crossref]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(7), 072105 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1-xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181125 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Tolle, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Kouvetakis, V. R. D’Costa, and J. Menéndez, “Compliant tin-based buffers for the growth of defect-free strained heterostructures on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(25), 252112 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris., “Theoretical analysis of GeSn alloys as a gain medium for a Si-compatible laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, T. Arguirov, G. Mussler, K. Ye, M. Gollhofer, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, R. A. Körner, M. Kittler, D. Buca, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn heterojunction LEDs on Si substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(2), 187–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

S. Gupta, V. Moroz, L. Smith, Q. Lu, and K. C. Saraswat, “7 nm FinFET CMOS design enabled by stress engineering using Si, Ge and Sn,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 61(5), 1222–1230 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. Chen, Y.-C. Huang, S. Gupta, A. C. Lin, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, K. C. Saraswat, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Material characterization of high Sn-content, compressively-strained GeSn epitaxial films after rapid thermal processing,” J. Cryst. Growth 365, 29–34 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Su, B. Cheng, C. Xue, W. Wang, Q. Cao, H. Xue, W. Hu, G. Zhang, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “GeSn p-i-n photodetector for all telecommunication bands detection,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6400–6405 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-E. Chang, S.-W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory for n-type doped, tensile-strained Ge-SixGeySn1-x-y quantum-well lasers at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11246–11258 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Fang, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Sn-alloying as a means of increasing the optical absorption of Ge at the C- and L-telecommunication bands,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(11), 115006 (2009).
[Crossref]

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M. J. Deen and P. K. Basu, Silicon Photonics: Fundamental and Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).

M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks using Si3N4 stressors,” in Proceedings of IEEE 10th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2013), pp. 95–96.
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N. Lobontiu and E. Garcia, Mechanics of Microelectromechanical Systems (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005).

D. Buca, S. Wirths, D. Stange, A. T. Tiedemann, G. Mussler, Z. Ikonic, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Si-Ge-Sn heterostructures: growth and applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (IEEE, 2014), pp. 201–202.

C. D. Sheraw, M. Yang, D. M. Fried, G. Costrini, T. Kanarsky, W.-H. Lee, V. Chan, M. V. Fischetti, J. Holt, L. Black, M. Naeem, S. Panda, L. Economikos, J. Groschopf, A. Kapur, Y. Li, R. T. Mo, A. Bonnoit, D. Degraw, S. Luning, D. Chidambarrao, X. Wang, A. Bryant, D. Brown, C.-Y. Sung, P. Agnello, M. Ieong, S.-F. Huang, X. Chen, and M. Khare, “Dual stress liner enhancement in hybrid orientation technology,” in Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers (IEEE, 2005), pp. 12–13.
[Crossref]

L. Ding, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, N. Duan, M.-B. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Ge waveguide photodetectors with responsivity roll-off beyond 1620 nm using localized stressor,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC Tech. Digest, (2012), paper OW3G.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D schematics of (a) GeSn p+-i-n+ structure formed on Si(001), (b) GeSn fins, and (c) GeSn fin photodetector integrated with the Si3N4 liner stressor. (d) 3D zoomed-in view of Si3N4 wrapped around GeSn fin. (e) GeSn fin is stretched along [010] and [001] directions. GeSn fins are along [010] direction.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) AA’ plane cutting through the GeSn fin along [010] direction and BB’ plane cutting perpendicular to the fin. Coordinate axes are also shown. Contour plots for (b) ε[100], (c) ε[010], and (d) ε[001] in plan AA’ and (e) ε[100], (f) ε[010], and (g) ε[001] in plan BB’. The strain contour lines are plotted with an interval of 0.1%.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) E-k energy band diagrams of unstrained Ge0.92Sn0.08. (b) and (c) show the E-k energy band diagrams of strained Ge0.92Sn0.08 with Tfin of 200 and 100 nm, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of EG,Γ of relaxed GeSn and strained GeSn fin photodetectors with different Tfin, showing the band gap reduction for strained GeSn fin photodetector over the relaxed GeSn devices.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated absorption spectra for relaxed and strained Ge0.96Sn0.04, Ge0.92Sn0.08, and Ge0.90Sn0.10 fin photodetectors with Tfin of 100 and 200 nm. The cut-off wavelength of GeSn fin photodetector is significantly extended to MIR due to the biaxial tensile strain induced by Si3N4 liner stressor.

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Table 1 Geometric parameters and materials properties used in simulation of strain profiles

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