Abstract

β-Ga2O3 epitaxial thin films were deposited by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) and annealed at 800°C for 30 minutes in air and oxygen atmospheres, respectively. Photodetectors were fabricated using as-grown and annealed Ga2O3 epilayers. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on the crystal structure and optical properties of Ga2O3 films was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that the in-plane compressive strain of Ga2O3 thin films could be relaxed after high temperature thermal annealing. Compared with the as-grown sample, the annealed samples exhibit a red shift of absorption edge in the transmittance spectra, indicating a reduced bandgap. According to the XPS measurement results, the atomic ratios of O to Ga also increased for the annealed samples. Moreover, the oxygen-annealed photodetector achieves a larger photocurrent, higher responsivity and better time-dependent photoresponse than the other two samples, which may be attributed to the decrease in the number of oxygen vacancies.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  18. Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
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    [Crossref]
  24. D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. J. Rubio and C. V. Ramana, “Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 094312 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (3)

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

F.-P. Yu, S.-L. Ou, and D.-S. Wuu, “Pulsed laser deposition of gallium oxide films for high performance solar-blind photodetectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1240 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3.,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28300–28305 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

E. J. Rubio and C. V. Ramana, “Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 094312 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abdelouhadi, K.

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

An, Y.

An, Y. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arai, N.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baldini, M.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barboux, P.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Binet, L.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boschi, F.

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calestani, G.

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, X. L.

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Currie, M.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dohy, D.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Du, G.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eddy, C. R.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3.,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28300–28305 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, G.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, P.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fornari, R.

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freitas, J. A.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Galazka, Z.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gallas, B.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gogova, D.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Greenlee, J. D.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guo, D.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, D. Y.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

Guo, X. C.

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hatanaka, Y.

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hebert, C.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Higo, K.

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hite, J. K.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3.,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28300–28305 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hobart, K. D.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Horng, R.-H.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-Y.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Q.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Janotti, A.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.

Kang, H. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. S.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kao, H.-S.

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ke, J.-J.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. W.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Klimm, D.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kub, F. J.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, L. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

Li, P. G.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Q. H.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, S. Y.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lien, D.-H.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lucazeau, G.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mahadik, N. A.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mastro, M. A.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3.,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28300–28305 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mezzadri, F.

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mu, W.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakagomi, S.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, Y.

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ogita, M.

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

Ohira, S.

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okuno, T.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Orlandi, F.

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oshima, T.

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ou, S.-L.

Perrière, J.

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petitmangin, A.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Portier, X.

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramana, C. V.

E. J. Rubio and C. V. Ramana, “Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 094312 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rao, M.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rao, R.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ravadgar, P.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Revcolevschi, A.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Rubio, E. J.

E. J. Rubio and C. V. Ramana, “Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 094312 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schewski, R.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidbauer, M.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seiler, W.

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Selmane, M.

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, R.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Sun, C. L.

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sunkara, M. K.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, N.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tadjer, M. J.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, W.

Tang, W. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D.-S.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.-L.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, L.-W.

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van De Walle, C. G.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Varley, J. B.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, T. H.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weber, J. R.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, T.-C.

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, V. D.

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Wu, Z. P.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D.-S.

F.-P. Yu, S.-L. Ou, and D.-S. Wuu, “Pulsed laser deposition of gallium oxide films for high performance solar-blind photodetectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1240 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, X.

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xing, X.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yu, F.-P.

Yuan, L.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Q. Feng, X. Li, G. Han, L. Huang, F. Li, W. Tang, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “(AlGa)2O3 solar-blind photodetectors on sapphire with wider bandgap and improved responsivity,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(4), 1240–1248 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Q.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with Schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Vertical solar-blind deep-ultraviolet schottky photodetectors based on β-Ga2O3 substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011202 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Orlandi, F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, and R. Fornari, “Thermal expansion coefficients of β- Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(11), 111101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, D.-S. Wuu, L.-W. Tu, and H.-S. Kao, “Thermal annealing effect on material characterizations of β-Ga2O3 epilayer grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011119 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. J. Rubio and C. V. Ramana, “Tungsten-incorporation induced red-shift in the bandgap of gallium oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 094312 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Guo, Z. P. Wu, Y. H. An, X. C. Guo, X. L. Chu, C. L. Sun, L. H. Li, P. G. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Oxygen vacancy tuned Ohmic-Schottky conversion for enhanced performance in β-Ga2O3 solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(2), 023507 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β- Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Feng, J. Y. Zhang, Q. H. Li, and T. H. Wang, “Individual β-Ga2O3 nanowires as solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153107 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

M. Ogita, K. Higo, Y. Nakanishi, and Y. Hatanaka, “Ga2O3 thin film for oxygen sensor at high temperature,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 175–176, 721–725 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Petitmangin, B. Gallas, C. Hebert, J. Perrière, L. Binet, P. Barboux, and X. Portier, “Characterization of oxygen deficient gallium oxide films grown by PLD,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 278, 153–157 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T.-C. Wei, D.-S. Tsai, P. Ravadgar, J.-J. Ke, M.-L. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, C.-Y. Huang, R.-H. Horng, and J.-H. He, “See-through Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors for use in harsh environments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 112–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison study of β- Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. S. Kang, J. S. Kang, J. W. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1246–1250 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Rao, M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blueshifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 1–5 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

M. J. Tadjer, M. A. Mastro, N. A. Mahadik, M. Currie, V. D. Wheeler, J. A. Freitas, J. D. Greenlee, J. K. Hite, K. D. Hobart, C. R. Eddy, and F. J. Kub, “Structural, optical, and electrical characterization of monoclinic β-Ga2O3 grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates,” J. Electron. Mater. 45(4), 2031–2037 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β- Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β-Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

Y. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Liu, X. Xia, R. Shen, S. Song, Y. Wu, and G. Du, “Influence of N2 and O2 annealing treatment on the optical bandgap of polycrystalline Ga2O3:Cu films,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(5), 1303–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, and R. Fornari, “Homoepitaxial growth of β- Ga2O3 layers by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 27–33 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Oshima, N. Arai, N. Suzuki, S. Ohira, and S. Fujita, “Surface morphology of homoepitaxial β- Ga2O3 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5768–5771 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Seiler, M. Selmane, K. Abdelouhadi, and J. Perrière, “Epitaxial growth of gallium oxide films on c-cut sapphire substrate,” Thin Solid Films 589, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. Monroy, “III-nitride-based UV photodetectors in III-V Nitride Semiconductors Applications and Devices, 1st ed., M. O. Manasreh, ed. (Taylor and Francis, 2003) pp. 525–591.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the β-Ga2O3 MSM structure photodetector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) XRD curves for all Ga2O3 samples, (b) Rocking curve of all Ga2O3 samples, (c) TEM image of as-grown sample and samples annealed under 800°C for 30 min in air and oxygen atmosphere, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raman spectra of the as-grown, air annealed, O2 annealed and Ga2O3 bulk sample.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Transmittance spectra and αhν versus of Ga2O3 samples.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 XPS Ga 3d and O 1s spectra of Ga2O3 samples. Ga 3d raw data were fitted using two Gaussian peaks, corresponding to O 2s and Ga 3d, respectively. O 1s raw data were also fitted with two Gaussian peaks, corresponding to GaO x and Ga2O3, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of (a) dark currents and (b) photocurrents for three photodetector samples.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The linear photocurrent Iphoto versus Plight at the various bias voltage Vbias for devices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Time-dependent photoresponse of the Ga2O3 photodetectors under a Vbias of 10 V; (b), (c), (d) Experimental curves and fitted curves of the rise and decay processes of the photodetectors.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Responsivity as a function of λ for the Ga2O3 photodetectors at various Vbias.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of interplanar spacing obtained from XRD θ-2θ curves and FWHM obtained from XRD rocking curves.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 d sin θ = n λ
I = I 0 + A 0 e t / τ 1 + A 1 e t / τ 2

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