Abstract

The growth of single crystal ε-Ga2O3 films under the assistance of Sn element was studied using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The crystal structure, optical properties and chemical state of the element were investigated to analyze the influence of tin during the film epitaxy. There is a transition layer at the substrate and the ε-Ga2O3 film interface. Increase in Sn atomic ratio will cause a rise in the transition layer thickness and the growth rate. In addition, due to the Sn atoms aggregation and the formation of clusters, the higher dark current (Idark), photocurrent (Iphoto) and responsivity (R) were achieved for the enhanced electron transportation in the ε-Ga2O3 metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors. The optical bandgap Eg determined from R increased from 4.81eV to 4.88eV and 4.94eV with Sn contents increasing from 0.9% to 1.2% and 1.5%, consistent with the transmittance results.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. B. Maccioni and V. Fiorentini, “Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1-xInx)2O3,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 041102 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  13. F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081910 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs Ga2O desorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 072101 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  30. Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Furthmuller and F. Bechstedt, “Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115204 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  35. N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. B. Maccioni and V. Fiorentini, “Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1-xInx)2O3,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 041102 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs Ga2O desorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Furthmuller and F. Bechstedt, “Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081910 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

Abbas, Q.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aida, H.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aoki, K.

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aota, N.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baraldi, A.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barney, E. R.

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechstedt, F.

J. Furthmuller and F. Bechstedt, “Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berzina, T.

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bierwagen, O.

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs Ga2O desorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081910 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boschi, F.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bosi, M.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buffagni, E.

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calestani, G.

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. P.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, W.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dauchot, J.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Delmonte, D.

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, L.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Du, G.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eickhoff, M.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fabbri, F.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fang, G.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, Q.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, C.

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

M. B. Maccioni and V. Fiorentini, “Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1-xInx)2O3,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 041102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fornari, R.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, S.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, T.

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fung, S.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
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Furthmuller, J.

J. Furthmuller and F. Bechstedt, “Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gerken, B.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Godfroid, T.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gombia, E.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gouttebaron, R.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gullapalli, S. K.

S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
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Guo, D.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
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Hannon, A. C.

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
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Hao, Y.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hecq, M.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Higashiwaki, M.

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ichinose, N.

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
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Janek, J.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Janotti, A.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Karg, A.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

Klar, P. J.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Klimm, D.

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kong, W. Y.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kracht, M.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuramata, A.

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lau, H. W.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lazzaroni, R.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leclere, P.

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luan, C.

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, L. B.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lv, Y.

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maccioni, M. B.

M. B. Maccioni and V. Fiorentini, “Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1-xInx)2O3,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 041102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Masui, T.

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsushita, Y.

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, X.

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mezzadri, F.

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, K.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mi, W.

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

Michel, F.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, S.

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mu, W.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nishiguchi, K.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nishinaka, H.

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
[Crossref]

Okuno, T.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ong, C. K.

L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oshima, T.

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oshima, Y.

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. S.

L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parisini, A.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, M.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Piacentini, G.

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Playford, H. Y.

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramana, C. V.

S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Reiche, P.

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rohnke, M.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rosenauer, A.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sandvik, P.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schormann, J.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schowalter, M.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shimamura, K.

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sunakawa, K.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tahara, D.

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
[Crossref]

Takeda, H.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tan, S.

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, W.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tao, P.

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tao, X.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tomm, Y.

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ueda, N.

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Varley, J. B.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vemuri, R. S.

S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Villora, E. G.

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs Ga2O desorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081910 (2015).
[Crossref]

Walker, D.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walton, R. I.

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. D.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K. Y.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waseda, R.

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weber, J. R.

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weinhold, M.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wong, J. I.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, G. A.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, X.

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xing, X.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yaguchi, Y.

H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamakoshi, S.

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, Y.

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, M.

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T. F.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. H.

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Q.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhi, Y.

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhong, M.

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zink, D.

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y. F.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

N. Liu, G. Fang, W. Zeng, H. Zhou, F. Cheng, Q. Zheng, L. Yuan, X. Zou, and X. Zhao, “Direct growth of lateral ZnO nanorod UV photodetectors with schottky contact by a single-step hydrothermal reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(7), 1973–1979 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. B. Maccioni and V. Fiorentini, “Phase diagram and polarization of stable phases of (Ga1-xInx)2O3,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 041102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

X. Xia, Y. Chen, Q. Feng, H. Liang, P. Tao, M. Xu, and G. Du, “Hexagonal phase-pure wide band gap ε-Ga2O3 films grown on 6H-SiC substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(20), 202103 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, H. Hosono, R. Waseda, and H. Kawazoe, “Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(26), 3561–3563 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(4), 403–405 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081910 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, “Reaction kinetics and growth window for plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy of Ga2O3: Incorporation of Ga vs Ga2O desorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(7), 072101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, T. P. Chen, H. W. Lau, J. I. Wong, L. Ding, S. Zhang, and S. Fung, “Charging effect on current conduction in aluminum nitride thin films contain Al nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 123101 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. B. Varley, J. R. Weber, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(14), 142106 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Gullapalli, R. S. Vemuri, and C. V. Ramana, “Structural transformation induced changes in the optical properties of nanocrystalline tungsten oxide thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 171903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chemistry (1)

H. Y. Playford, A. C. Hannon, E. R. Barney, and R. I. Walton, “Structures of uncharacterised polymorphs of gallium oxide from total neutron diffraction,” Chemistry 19(8), 2803–2813 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

Y. Chen, X. Xia, H. Liang, Q. Abbas, Y. Liu, and G. Du, “Growth pressure controlled nucleation epitaxy of pure phase ε-and β-Ga2O3 films on Al2O3 via MOCVD,” Cryst. Growth Des. 18(2), 1147–1154 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (2)

J. Zhao, X. Sun, H. Ryu, and S. Tan, “UV and visible electroluminescence from a Sn: Ga2O3/n+-Si heterojunction by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(5), 1447–1451 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Feng, L. Huang, G. Han, F. Li, X. Li, L. Fang, X. Xing, J. Zhang, W. Mu, Z. Jia, D. Guo, W. Tang, X. Tao, and Y. Hao, “Comparison Study of β-Ga2O3 photodetectors on bulk substrate and sapphire,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 63(9), 3578–3583 (2016).
[Crossref]

Inorg. Chem. (1)

F. Mezzadri, G. Calestani, F. Boschi, D. Delmonte, M. Bosi, and R. Fornari, “Crystal Structure and Ferroelectric properties of ε-Ga2O3 films grown on (0001)-sapphire,” Inorg. Chem. 55(22), 12079–12084 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

M. Zhong, Z. Wei, X. Meng, F. Wu, and J. Li, “High-performance single crystalline UV photodetectors of β-Ga2O3,” J. Alloys Compd. 619(C), 572–575 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Oshima, E. G. Villora, Y. Matsushita, S. Yamamoto, and K. Shimamura, “Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(8), 085301 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (5)

F. Boschi, M. Bosi, T. Berzina, E. Buffagni, C. Ferrari, and R. Fornari, “Hetero-epitaxy of ε-Ga2O3 layers by MOCVD and ALD,” J. Cryst. Growth 443, 25–30 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Tomm, P. Reiche, D. Klimm, and T. Fukuda, “Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 220(4), 510–514 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. G. Villora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, K. Aoki, and N. Ichinose, “Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers,” J. Cryst. Growth 270(3–4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Sasaki, M. Higashiwaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “MBE grown Ga2O3 and its power device applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 378, 591–595 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Mi, J. Ma, Z. Zhu, C. Luan, Y. Lv, and H. Xiao, “Epitaxial growth of Ga2O3 thin films on MgO(110) substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 354(1), 93–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Oshima, T. Okuno, and S. Fujita, “Ga2O3 thin film growth on c-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy for deep-ultraviolet photodetectors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(11), 7217–7220 (2007).
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H. Aida, K. Nishiguchi, H. Takeda, N. Aota, K. Sunakawa, and Y. Yaguchi, “Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(11), 8506–8509 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Tahara, H. Nishinaka, S. Morimoto, and M. Yoshimoto, “Stoichiometric control for heteroepitaxial growth of smooth ε-Ga2O3 thin films on c-plane AlN templates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 56(7), 078004 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Nishinaka, D. Tahara, and M. Yoshimoto, “Heteroepitaxial growth of ε-Ga2O3 thin films on cubic(111) MgO and (111) yttria-stablized zirconia substrates by mist chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55(12), 1202BC (2016).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Pavesi, F. Fabbri, F. Boschi, G. Piacentini, A. Baraldi, M. Bosi, E. Gombia, A. Parisini, and R. Fornari, “ε-Ga2O3 epilayers as a material for solar-blind UV photodetectors,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 205(1), 502–507 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

L. Yan, J. S. Pan, and C. K. Ong, “XPS studies of room temperature magnetic Co-doped SnO2 deposited on Si,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 128(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. (1)

X. Zhao, Y. Zhi, W. Cui, D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Characterization of hexagonal ε-Ga1.8Sn0.2O3 thin films for solar-blind ultraviolet applications,” Opt. Mater. 62(12), 651–654 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

M. Kracht, A. Karg, J. Schormann, M. Weinhold, D. Zink, F. Michel, M. Rohnke, M. Schowalter, B. Gerken, A. Rosenauer, P. J. Klar, J. Janek, and M. Eickhoff, “Tin-assisted synthesis of ε-Ga2O3 by molecular beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(5), 054002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Furthmuller and F. Bechstedt, “Quasiparticle bands and spectra of Ga2O3 polymorphs,” Phys. Rev. B 93(11), 115204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

M. Higashiwaki, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Masui, and S. Yamakoshi, “Development of gallium oxide power devices,” Phys. Status Solidi 211(1), 21–26 (2014).
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Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Godfroid, R. Gouttebaron, J. Dauchot, P. Leclere, R. Lazzaroni, and M. Hecq, “Growth of ultrathin Ti films deposited on SnO2 by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 437(1–2), 57–62 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, J. Ma, C. Luan, W. Mi, and Y. Lv, “Structural and optical properties of heteroepitaxial beta Ga2O3 films grown on MgO(100) substrates,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4270–4274 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) HRXRD diffraction curves of Sn assisted growth of ε-Ga2O3 and undoped β-Ga2O3 samples on sapphire. The peaks of ε-Ga2O3 are located at the right side of β-Ga2O3 peaks, (b-d) HRXRD diffraction curves of sample B-D and fitted results.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TEM images of (a) sample A, (c) sample E, (d) sample G and (b), (e) HRTEM image of selected regions in dotted box and dashed box in (a) and (d), showing a small amount of α-phase Ga2O3 and a polycrystalline Ga2O3 layer under β-Ga2O3 and ε-Ga2O3,respectively. SAED patterns of (f) sample A and (g) sample G.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SIMS spectra of ε-Ga2O3 samples E-G, showing the Sn concentration and Ga intensity as a function of sputter depth.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) XPS spectra of the undoped β-Ga2O3 (sample A) and ε-Ga2O3 (sample E-G) Ga2p3/2, (b) O1s (sample E-G), (c-e) Sn3d (sample E-G)
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmittance spectra and (b) ( α h ν ) 2 vs h ν curves and linear extrapolation for estimating the optical bandgap of Sn assisted ε-Ga2O3 (sample E-G) and undoped β- Ga2O3 sample on sapphire.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) characteristics of Idark versus voltage, (b-e) characteristics of Iphoto versus voltage and (f) characteristics of PDCR for the β-Ga2O3 and ε-Ga2O3 photodetectors.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The dependence of R versus illumination wavelengths λ for the different photodetectors at Vbias = 10 and 20V.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Time-dependent photoresponse of the Ga2O3 photodetectors under a Vbias of 20 V, (b-e) the current response and recovery biexponential relaxation fitting curve of sample A and sample E-G.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The rise time constants (τr1 and τr2) and values of decay time (τd1 and τd2).

Equations (8)

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G a 2 O + 2 S n O 2 G a 2 O 3 + 2 S n O Δ G 0 = 93.7 k J / m o l
G a 2 O + 2 S n O G a 2 O 3 + 2 S n Δ G 0 = 117.7 k J / m o l
G a 2 O + S n O 2 G a 2 O 3 + S n Δ G 0 = 105 .7 k J / m o l
α = ( 1 / t ) ln [ ( 1 R C ) 2 / T ]
α h ν = ( h ν E g ) 2
R = ( I L I D ) / P λ S
E Q E = h c R max / ( e λ )
I = I 0 + A 1 e t / τ 1 + A 2 e t / τ 2

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