Abstract

We report resonant feedback random lasing from dye-doped biopolymer films, consisting of a deoxyribonucleic acid-cetyltrimethylammonium (DNA-CTMA) complex doped with DCM dye. In the proposed devices, the optical feedback for random lasing is given by scattering centers randomly positioned along the edges of the active area. Scattering elements are either titanium dioxide nanoparticles or random defects at the interface between active polymer and air. Different emission spectra are observed, depending on the geometry of the excited area. A single random resonator with dimensions of 2.6 mm x 0.65 mm is fabricated and random emission with resonant feedback is obtained by uniformly pumping the full device.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Emission regimes of random lasers with spatially localized feedback

Antonio Consoli and Cefe Lopez
Opt. Express 24(10) 10912-10920 (2016)

Waveguide random laser based on a disordered ZnSe-nanosheets arrangement

Jiayu Yi, Yi Yu, Jianli Shang, Xiangchao An, Bo Tu, Guoying Feng, and Shouhuan Zhou
Opt. Express 24(5) 5102-5109 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Cao, “Random lasers: development, features and applications,” Opt. Photonics News 16(1), 24–29 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3404–3406 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Noginov, Solid-state random lasers (Springer 2005), Chap. 10.
  6. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Cao and et al.., “Random lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in polymeric gain media containing scattering particles,” Appl. Opt. 35(4), 640–643 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Yu, W. Li, J. A. Hagen, Y. Zhou, D. Klotzkin, J. G. Grote, and A. J. Steckl, “Photoluminescence and lasing from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) thin films doped with sulforhodamine,” Appl. Opt. 46(9), 1507–1513 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Wiersma, “Laser physics: The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Leonetti, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. Conti, and C. López, “Optical gain in DNA-DCM for lasing in photonic materials,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3764–3766 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).
  27. E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Tulek and Z. V. Vardeny, “Studies of random laser action in π-conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024008 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).

2013 (1)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. Tulek and Z. V. Vardeny, “Studies of random laser action in π-conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024008 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, “Random lasers: development, features and applications,” Opt. Photonics News 16(1), 24–29 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Cao and et al.., “Random lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

D. Wiersma, “Laser physics: The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Akkus, O.

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in polymeric gain media containing scattering particles,” Appl. Opt. 35(4), 640–643 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barna, V.

Bartkiewicz, S.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bartolino, R.

Basov, N.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bettotti, P.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boj, P. G.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Calzado, E. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Camposeo, A.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, “Random lasers: development, features and applications,” Opt. Photonics News 16(1), 24–29 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao and et al.., “Random lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cazzanelli, M.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Churkin, D. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conti, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. Conti, and C. López, “Optical gain in DNA-DCM for lasing in photonic materials,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3764–3766 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cyprych, K.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

De Luca, A.

Del Carro, P.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díaz-García, M. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V.

Ek, S.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Taher, A. E.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferjani, S.

Garcia, P. D.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gregersen, N.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grote, J. G.

Hagen, J. A.

Harper, P.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ibisate, M.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kajzar, F.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karpinski, P.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. L.

Klotzkin, D.

Kokars, V.

A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).

Kryukov, P.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Laser action in polymeric gain media containing scattering particles,” Appl. Opt. 35(4), 640–643 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Leonetti, M.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. Conti, and C. López, “Optical gain in DNA-DCM for lasing in photonic materials,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3764–3766 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodahl, P.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, R. Sapienza, M. Ibisate, C. Conti, and C. López, “Optical gain in DNA-DCM for lasing in photonic materials,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3764–3766 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miniewicz, A.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mørk, J.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysliwiec, J.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pacheco, D. P.

Pacifici, D.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Palewska, K.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Parafiniuk, K.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Persano, L.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pisignano, D.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quintana, J. A.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rau, I.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Spatial coherence of random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3404–3406 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Safonov, A. N.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sapienza, R.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

Schubert, M.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

Steckl, A. J.

Stobbe, S.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strangi, G.

Suhr, T.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Sznitko, L.

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Szukalski, A.

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tulek and Z. V. Vardeny, “Studies of random laser action in π-conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024008 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G. A.

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek and Z. V. Vardeny, “Studies of random laser action in π-conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024008 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vembris, A.

A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).

Versace, C.

Villalvilla, J. M.

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D.

D. Wiersma, “Laser physics: The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

Xu, Z.

Yu, Z.

Zarinsh, E.

A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

A. Camposeo, P. Del Carro, L. Persano, K. Cyprych, A. Szukalski, L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and D. Pisignano, “Physically transient photonics: random versus distributed feedback lasing based on nanoimprinted DNA,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10893–10898 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, P. Karpinski, K. Palewska, K. Parafiniuk, S. Bartkiewicz, I. Rau, F. Kajzar, and A. Miniewicz, “Biopolymer based system doped with nonlinear optical dye as a medium for amplified spontaneous emission and lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031107 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. (1)

H. Cao and et al.., “Random lasers with coherent feedback,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 9(1), 111–119 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. M. Calzado, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the thickness in organic-based waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093103 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Tulek and Z. V. Vardeny, “Studies of random laser action in π-conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024008 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. (1)

L. Sznitko, J. Mysliwiec, and A. Miniewicz, “The role of polymers in random lasing,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 53(14), 951–974 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 231–235 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Wiersma, “Laser physics: The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Dal Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

H. Cao, “Random lasers: development, features and applications,” Opt. Photonics News 16(1), 24–29 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Dynamics of phase-locking random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 043834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. K. Sheridan, G. A. Turnbull, A. N. Safonov, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Tuneability of amplified spontaneous emission through control of the waveguide-mode structure in conjugated polymer films,” Phys. Rev. B 62(18), R11929 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Vembris, E. Zarinsh, and V. Kokars, “Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films,” Proc. SPIE 9137, 91371E (2014).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. Basov, P. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “Non-resonant feedback in lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 1, 107 (1970).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

M. A. Noginov, Solid-state random lasers (Springer 2005), Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Image of the sample with (a) and without (b) TiO2 particles when illuminated at low pump flux with full SLM screen. Rectangular regions are highlighted in yellow, corresponding to the excited regions in lasing experiments. (c) Experimental set-up, details are given in the text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) ASE spectra measured for different stripe lengths, curves obtained between 1.2 mm and 4.0 mm are shown. The inset shows the CCD image for measurement with L = 2.8 mm. (b) Total measure intensity (full dots), obtained varying L from 0.4 mm to 4.0 mm, and fitted curve (solid line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental results obtained with sampled with TiO2: CCD image of the pumped region and emitting areas (a). Zoomed view of the left (b) and right (c) emitting region. Measured spectra (d) from left (black line) and right (red line) emitting region.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental results obtained with sampled without TiO2: CCD image of the pumped region and emitting areas (a). Zoomed view of the left (b) and right (c) emitting region. Normalized measured spectra (d) from left (black line) and right (red line) emitting region.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized measured spectra emitted from left (lines) and right (open circles) laser ends, pumping the polymer film without TiO2 in different positions, highlighted in Fig. 1(b) with yellow rectangles.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured spectra as a function of W, with L = 3 mm and EP = 20 pJ/µm2. The width W is varied between 50 µm and 1.8 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experiments performed with a uniformly pumped device with dimensions of 2.6 mm × 0.65 mm (a). Emission spectra detected from the devices edges at points labelled I-VI (b).

Metrics