Abstract

At present the prediction and characterization of the emission output of a diffusive random laser remains a challenge, despite the variety of investigated materials and theoretical interpretations given up to now. Here, a new mode selection method, based on spatial filtering and ultrafast detection, which allows to separate individual lasing modes and follow their temporal evolution is presented. In particular, the work explores the random laser behavior of a ground powder of an organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on Rhodamine B incorporated into a di-ureasil host. The experimental approach gives direct access to the mode structure and dynamics, shows clear modal relaxation oscillations, and illustrates the lasing modes stochastic behavior of this diffusive scattering system. The effect of the excitation energy on its modal density is also investigated. Finally, imaging measurements reveal the dominant role of diffusion over amplification processes in this kind of unconventional lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  33. K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
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  34. J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
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  36. M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
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  37. J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  42. C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  45. M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, “Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(1), 43–48 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  46. H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. A. Yamilov, X. Wu, H. Cao, and A. L. Burin, “Absorption-induced confinement of lasing modes in diffusive random media,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2430–2432 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

I. Iparraguirre, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. García-Revilla, and N. Hakmeh, “On the temporal behavior of Nd3+ random lasers,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3646–3649 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e88 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Dependence of the Gaussian-Levy transition on the disorder strength in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013822 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 662–664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, “Recent developments in the theory of multimode random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

X. Wu and H. Cao, “Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013832 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Illarramendi, I. Aramburu, J. Fernández, R. Balda, S. N. Williams, J. A. Adegoke, and M. A. Noginov, “Characterization of light scattering in translucent ceramics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(1), 43–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sharma, H. Ramachandran, and N. Kumar, “Lévy statistics of emission from a novel random amplifying medium: an optical realization of the Arrhenius cascade,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1806–1808 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and B. Collier, “Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043822 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. A. Chabanov, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Breakdown of diffusion in dynamics of extended waves in mesoscopic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO-PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2–4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vanneste and P. Sebbah, “Selective excitation of localized modes in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183903 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adegoke, J. A.

Andreasen, J.

Aramburu, I.

Arriandiaga, M. A.

J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asatryan, A. A.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

Azkargorta, J.

Bachelard, N.

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Balda, R.

Barna, V.

Bartolino, R.

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bhaktha, S. B. N.

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Botten, L. C.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burin, A. L.

A. Yamilov, X. Wu, H. Cao, and A. L. Burin, “Absorption-induced confinement of lasing modes in diffusive random media,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2430–2432 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byrne, M. A.

Cao, C. Q.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wu and H. Cao, “Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013832 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Yamilov, X. Wu, H. Cao, and A. L. Burin, “Absorption-induced confinement of lasing modes in diffusive random media,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2430–2432 (2005).
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X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carlos, L. D.

J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, S.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
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S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
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X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
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A. A. Chabanov, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Breakdown of diffusion in dynamics of extended waves in mesoscopic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203903 (2003).
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H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chipouline, A.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Collier, B.

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and B. Collier, “Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043822 (2006).
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Conti, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e88 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
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Deych, L.

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, “Recent developments in the theory of multimode random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024001 (2010).
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J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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El-Dardiry, R. G. S.

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
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Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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Fang, W.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
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Feng, S. L.

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
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Ferjani, S.

Fernández, J.

Ferreira, R. A. S.

Fini, L.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
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S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
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García-Revilla, S.

Ge, L.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

A. A. Chabanov, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Breakdown of diffusion in dynamics of extended waves in mesoscopic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hakmeh, N.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ignesti, E.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
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Illarramendi, M. A.

Iparraguirre, I.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, X. Y.

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

John, S.

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
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Kumar, N.

Kumar, P.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
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Labonte, L.

Lagendijk, A.

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
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K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
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D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
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Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Leonetti, M.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e88 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lepri, S.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
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S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, C.

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e88 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mosk, A. P.

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mujumdar, S.

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Dependence of the Gaussian-Levy transition on the disorder strength in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013822 (2013).
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R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 662–664 (2012).
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S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muskens, O. L.

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noginov, M. A.

Oppo, G. L.

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pang, G.

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pecoraro, E.

J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Pecoraro, S. García-Revilla, R. A. S. Ferreira, R. Balda, L. D. Carlos, and J. Fernández, “Real time random laser properties of Rhodamine-doped di-ureasil hybrids,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7470–7478 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
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R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO-PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2–4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Radhalakshmi, V.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raikh, M. E.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO-PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2–4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, H.

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sebbah, P.

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
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J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
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J. Andreasen, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Nonlinear effects in random lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(12), 2947–2955 (2011).

C. Vanneste and P. Sebbah, “Selective excitation of localized modes in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183903 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sharma, D.

Soukoulis, C. M.

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and B. Collier, “Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043822 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strangi, G.

Tandy, R. J.

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. K.

Tjerkstra, R. W.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tommasi, F.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

Türeci, H. E.

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and B. Collier, “Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043822 (2006).
[Crossref]

Uppu, R.

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Dependence of the Gaussian-Levy transition on the disorder strength in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013822 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Uppu, A. K. Tiwari, and S. Mujumdar, “Identification of statistical regimes and crossovers in coherent random laser emission,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 662–664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanneste, C.

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Andreasen, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Nonlinear effects in random lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(12), 2947–2955 (2011).

J. Andreasen, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, M. A. Byrne, H. Cao, L. Ge, L. Labonte, P. Sebbah, A. D. Stone, H. E. Türeci, and C. Vanneste, “Modes of random lasers,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 3(1), 88–127 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vanneste and P. Sebbah, “Selective excitation of localized modes in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183903 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO-PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2–4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Versace, C.

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D.

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, S. N.

Wu, X.

X. Wu and H. Cao, “Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013832 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Yamilov, X. Wu, H. Cao, and A. L. Burin, “Absorption-induced confinement of lasing modes in diffusive random media,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2430–2432 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamilov, A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Yamilov, X. Wu, H. Cao, and A. L. Burin, “Absorption-induced confinement of lasing modes in diffusive random media,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2430–2432 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zaitsev, O.

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, “Recent developments in the theory of multimode random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D. Z.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. Q.

A. A. Chabanov, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Breakdown of diffusion in dynamics of extended waves in mesoscopic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zi, J.

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Tunable degree of localization in random lasers with controlled interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(5), 051104 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (1)

J. Andreasen, N. Bachelard, S. B. N. Bhaktha, H. Cao, P. Sebbah, and C. Vanneste, “Partially pumped random lasers,” Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 28(5), 1430001 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

O. Zaitsev and L. Deych, “Recent developments in the theory of multimode random lasers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024001 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Fernández, S. García-Revilla, L. D. Carlos, E. Pecoraro, M. A. Arriandiaga, and R. Balda, “Time-resolved random laser spectroscopy of inhomogeneously broadened systems,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8(3), L32–L36 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “Non-locality and collective emission in disordered lasing resonators,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(8), e88 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Leonetti, C. Conti, and C. López, “The mode-locking transition of random lasers,” Nat. Photonics 5(10), 615–617 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nonlinearity (1)

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and R. J. Tandy, “Ab initio self-consistent laser theory and random lasers,” Nonlinearity 22(1), C1–C18 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (9)

R. Uppu and S. Mujumdar, “Dependence of the Gaussian-Levy transition on the disorder strength in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 87(1), 013822 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lepri, S. Cavalieri, G. L. Oppo, and D. S. Wiersma, “Statistical regimes of random laser fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063820 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Ignesti, F. Tommasi, L. Fini, S. Lepri, V. Radhalakshmi, D. Wiersma, and S. Cavalieri, “Experimental and theoretical investigation of statistical regimes in random laser emission,” Phys. Rev. A 88(3), 033820 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu and H. Cao, “Statistical studies of random-lasing modes and amplified spontaneous-emission spikes in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013832 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. E. Türeci, A. D. Stone, and B. Collier, “Self-consistent multimode lasing theory for complex or random lasing media,” Phys. Rev. A 74(4), 043822 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. John and G. Pang, “Theory of lasing in a multiple-scattering medium,” Phys. Rev. A 54(4), 3642–3652 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. S. El-Dardiry, A. P. Mosk, O. L. Muskens, and A. Lagendijk, “Experimental studies on the mode structure of random lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 81(4), 043830 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, X. Y. Jiang, J. Y. Xu, and H. Cao, “Dynamic response and relaxation oscillations in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 65(4), 041103 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, X. Y. Jiang, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Mode repulsion and mode coupling in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 67(16), 161101 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Jiang, S. L. Feng, C. M. Soukoulis, J. Zi, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. Cao, “Coupling, competition, and stability of modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 69(10), 104202 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, and A. L. Burin, “Probing localized states with spectrally resolved speckle techniques,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 66(2), 025601 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

D. S. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, “Light diffusion with gain and random lasers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 54(4), 4256–4265 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon statistics of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, D. Z. Zhang, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Spatial confinement of laser light in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5584–5587 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Jiang and C. M. Soukoulis, “Time dependent theory for random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 70–73 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vanneste and P. Sebbah, “Selective excitation of localized modes in active random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(18), 183903 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. A. Chabanov, Z. Q. Zhang, and A. Z. Genack, “Breakdown of diffusion in dynamics of extended waves in mesoscopic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(20), 203903 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica E (1)

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing from weakly scattering media; spectrum universality in DOO-PPV polymer films,” Physica E 13(2–4), 1240–1242 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Ishimaru, Wave propagation and scattering in random media (IEEE and Oxford University, 1997)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme of the experimental set up used to perform the ps time-resolved study of random lasing (L1, L2, L3, L4 are lenses, M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 are mirrors, BS1 and BS2 are beam splitters, F is a long-pass filter and P is a pinhole).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 3D map surfaces of the RL (left) and pumping pulses (right) obtained without a pinhole (a) and with a Øpinhole = 50 µm (b), 30 µm (c), and 15 µm (d) at 5.5 µJ/pulse. Spectral and temporal profiles extracted over the whole images are presented in the XZ and YZ planes of the left figures, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 3D map surfaces of the RL (left) and pumping pulses (right) obtained with a Øpinhole = 50 µm (a), 30 µm (b), and 15 µm (c) while keeping constant the experimental conditions used for Fig. 2 but in different shots. Spectral and temporal profiles extracted over the whole images are presented in the XZ and YZ planes of the left figures, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time traces of different RL modes extracted from the streak images whose 3D map surfaces are presented in Fig. 2(c) (left) and Fig. 3(b) (right). They correspond to successive excitation events with constant experimental conditions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 3D map surfaces of the RL pulse measured with a Øpinhole = 30 µm at 5.5 µJ/pulse (a), 27 µJ/pulse (b), and 83 µJ/pulse (c). Spectral and temporal profiles extracted over the whole images are presented in the XZ and YZ planes of the figures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Images of the emitting surface of the RhB doped di-ureasil powder pumped at 0.2 µJ/pulse (upper) and 10 µJ/pulse (down), i.e. below and above RL threshold, respectively. The left hand images (a, c) are images of the pumped area, since sample emission has been removed by filtering. Those to the right (b, d) are images of the emission area, since the reflected or re-emitted pumping has been removed by filtering. Widths of beams at 37% of maximal intensity are: a) 126 × 137 µm, b) 264 × 294 µm, c) 105 × 132 µm and d) 301 × 329 µm.

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