Abstract

We demonstrate tunable broadband two-mode power dividers based on a wavelength-insensitive coupler for a mode-division multiplexing system. Ultra-small ${{\rm{TE}}_0} {-} {{\rm{TE}}_1}$ and ${{\rm{TE}}_0} {-} {{\rm{TE}}_2}$ mode dividers based on Si-wire waveguides are designed based on the coupled-mode theory. Tunability is achieved by using the thermo-optic effect. In both dividers, arbitrary branching ratios can be realized over a wide wavelength range. We experimentally demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a tunable ${{\rm{TE}}_0} {-} {{\rm{TE}}_1}$ mode divider based on Si-wire waveguides. From the experimental results, an arbitrary branching ratio can be achieved by adjusting the injection current to a TiN heater placed on top of one of the delay lines.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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