Abstract

We have studied the behavior of light in the intermediate regime between a single nanoslit and an infinite nanoslit array. We first calculated the optical characteristics of a small number of nanoslits using finite element numerical analysis. The phase variance of the proposed nanoslit model shows a gradual phase shift between a single nanoslit and ideal nanoslit array, which stabilizes before the total array length becomes ~0.5 λ. Next, we designed a transmission-enhanced Fresnel zone plate by applying the phase characteristics from the small-number nanoslit model. The virtual-point-source method suggests that the proposed Fresnel zone plate with phase-invariant nanoslits achieves 2.34x higher transmission efficiency than a conventional Fresnel zone plate. Our report describes the intermediate behaviors of a nanoslit array, which could also benefit subwavelength metallic structure research of metasurfaces.

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  1. M. L. Brongersma and P. G. KikSurface plasmon nanophotonicsSpringerDordrecht2007
  2. H. Lan and Y. DingM. WangLithographyInTechOpenLondon, UK2010457494Nanoimprint lithography
  3. H. KimT. GricPlasmonicsIntechOpenLondon, UK2018Plasmonics on optical fiber platforms, Chapter 10
  4. F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. QiuHybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible lightSci. Adv.20162e1501168
  5. D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. BrongersmaDielectric gradient metasurface optical elementsScience2014345298302
  6. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. SmithMetamaterial electro-magnetic cloak at microwave frequenciesScience2006314977980
  7. N. Engheta and R. W. ZiolkowskiMetamaterials: Physics and engineering explorationsJohn Wiley & SonsUS2006
  8. P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. ByrenAll-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lensOpt. Express2014222621226221
  9. S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, S. Saravi, G. A. Keeler, Y. Yang, J. Reno, G. M. Peake, F. Setzpfandt, I. Staude, T. Pertsch, and I. BrenerResonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation using III-V semiconductor all-dielectric metasurfacesNano Lett.20161654265432
  10. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. BoydGenerating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurfaceLight: Sci. Appl.20143e167
  11. X. Yi, P. Huang, X. Huang, Z. Xu, C. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ai, and H. ChenOperation of polarization order of vector beams with cascaded metasurfacesAppl. Phys. B2017123243
  12. N. Nookala, J. Xu, O. Wolf, S. March, R. Sarma, S. Bank, J. Klem, I. Brener, and M. BelkinMid-infrared secondharmonic generation in ultra-thin plasmonic metasurfaces without a full-metal backplaneAppl. Phys. B2018124132
  13. X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. ShalaevUltra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalensesLight: Sci. Appl.20132e72
  14. S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, and B. LeePolarizationmultiplexed plasmonic phase generation with distributed nanoslitsOpt. Express2015231559815607
  15. H. Kim, J. Kim, H. An, Y. Lee, G.-y. Lee, J. Na, K. Park, S. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, B. Lee, and Y. JeongMetallic Fresnel zone plate implemented on an optical fiber facet for supervariable focusing of lightOpt. Express2017253029030303
  16. M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. CapassoMetalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imagingScience201635211901194
  17. E. T. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. ZheludevA super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imagingNat. Mater.201211432435
  18. C. Choi, S.-J. Kim, J.-G. Yun, J. Sung, S.-Y. Lee, and B. LeeDeflection angle switching with a metasurface based on phase-change nanorodsChin. Opt. Lett.201816050009
  19. J. Kim, H. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, B. Lee, and Y. JeongNumerical and experimental study on multi-focal metallic Fresnel zone plates designed by the phase selection rule via virtual point sourcesAppl. Sci.20188449
  20. C. W. Haggans, L. Li, and R. K. KostukEffective-medium theory of zeroth-order lamellar gratings in conical mountingsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. A19931022172225
  21. Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. J. Lee, G. Choi, Y. Kwon, and H. KimHigh-power fiber lasersProc. 2012 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications ConferenceKorea2012Jul.580581
  22. H. Kim and Y. JeongTheoretical and numerical study of cylindrical-vector-mode radiation characteristics in periodic metallic annular slits and their applicationsCurr. Opt. Photon.20182482487
  23. J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Na, and Y. JeongNumerical study of a novel bi-focal metallic fresnel zone plate having shallow depth-of-field characteristicsCurr. Opt. Photon.20182147152
  24. H. KimMetallic triangular pillar grating arrays for high transmission polarizers for air:glass interfacesJpn. J. Appl. Phys.201958042001
  25. N. T. Trung, D. Lee, H. K. Sung, and S. LimAngle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on vertical and horizontal symmetric slotted sectorsAppl Opt.20165583018307
  26. S.-Y. LeeDesign of a plasmonic switch using ultrathin chalcogenide phase-change materialCurr. Opt. Photon.20171239246

Other (26)

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. KikSurface plasmon nanophotonicsSpringerDordrecht2007

H. Lan and Y. DingM. WangLithographyInTechOpenLondon, UK2010457494Nanoimprint lithography

H. KimT. GricPlasmonicsIntechOpenLondon, UK2018Plasmonics on optical fiber platforms, Chapter 10

F. Qin, L. Ding, L. Zhang, F. Monticone, C. C. Chum, J. Deng, S. Mei, Y. Li, J. Teng, M. Hong, S. Zhang, A. Alù, and C.-W. QiuHybrid bilayer plasmonic metasurface efficiently manipulates visible lightSci. Adv.20162e1501168

D. Lin, P. Fan, E. Hasman, and M. L. BrongersmaDielectric gradient metasurface optical elementsScience2014345298302

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. SmithMetamaterial electro-magnetic cloak at microwave frequenciesScience2006314977980

N. Engheta and R. W. ZiolkowskiMetamaterials: Physics and engineering explorationsJohn Wiley & SonsUS2006

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. ByrenAll-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lensOpt. Express2014222621226221

S. Liu, M. B. Sinclair, S. Saravi, G. A. Keeler, Y. Yang, J. Reno, G. M. Peake, F. Setzpfandt, I. Staude, T. Pertsch, and I. BrenerResonantly enhanced second-harmonic generation using III-V semiconductor all-dielectric metasurfacesNano Lett.20161654265432

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. D. Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. BoydGenerating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurfaceLight: Sci. Appl.20143e167

X. Yi, P. Huang, X. Huang, Z. Xu, C. Zhang, J. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Ai, and H. ChenOperation of polarization order of vector beams with cascaded metasurfacesAppl. Phys. B2017123243

N. Nookala, J. Xu, O. Wolf, S. March, R. Sarma, S. Bank, J. Klem, I. Brener, and M. BelkinMid-infrared secondharmonic generation in ultra-thin plasmonic metasurfaces without a full-metal backplaneAppl. Phys. B2018124132

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. ShalaevUltra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalensesLight: Sci. Appl.20132e72

S.-Y. Lee, K. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, and B. LeePolarizationmultiplexed plasmonic phase generation with distributed nanoslitsOpt. Express2015231559815607

H. Kim, J. Kim, H. An, Y. Lee, G.-y. Lee, J. Na, K. Park, S. Lee, S.-Y. Lee, B. Lee, and Y. JeongMetallic Fresnel zone plate implemented on an optical fiber facet for supervariable focusing of lightOpt. Express2017253029030303

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. CapassoMetalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imagingScience201635211901194

E. T. Rogers, J. Lindberg, T. Roy, S. Savo, J. E. Chad, M. R. Dennis, and N. I. ZheludevA super-oscillatory lens optical microscope for subwavelength imagingNat. Mater.201211432435

C. Choi, S.-J. Kim, J.-G. Yun, J. Sung, S.-Y. Lee, and B. LeeDeflection angle switching with a metasurface based on phase-change nanorodsChin. Opt. Lett.201816050009

J. Kim, H. Kim, G.-Y. Lee, J. Kim, B. Lee, and Y. JeongNumerical and experimental study on multi-focal metallic Fresnel zone plates designed by the phase selection rule via virtual point sourcesAppl. Sci.20188449

C. W. Haggans, L. Li, and R. K. KostukEffective-medium theory of zeroth-order lamellar gratings in conical mountingsJ. Opt. Soc. Am. A19931022172225

Y. Jeong, L. A. Vazquez-Zuniga, S. J. Lee, G. Choi, Y. Kwon, and H. KimHigh-power fiber lasersProc. 2012 17th Opto-Electronics and Communications ConferenceKorea2012Jul.580581

H. Kim and Y. JeongTheoretical and numerical study of cylindrical-vector-mode radiation characteristics in periodic metallic annular slits and their applicationsCurr. Opt. Photon.20182482487

J. Kim, J. Kim, J. Na, and Y. JeongNumerical study of a novel bi-focal metallic fresnel zone plate having shallow depth-of-field characteristicsCurr. Opt. Photon.20182147152

H. KimMetallic triangular pillar grating arrays for high transmission polarizers for air:glass interfacesJpn. J. Appl. Phys.201958042001

N. T. Trung, D. Lee, H. K. Sung, and S. LimAngle-and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on vertical and horizontal symmetric slotted sectorsAppl Opt.20165583018307

S.-Y. LeeDesign of a plasmonic switch using ultrathin chalcogenide phase-change materialCurr. Opt. Photon.20171239246

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