Abstract

Chirality is ubiquitous in physics and biology from microscopic to macroscopic phenomena, such as fermionic interactions and DNA duplication. In photonics, chirality has traditionally represented differentiated optical responses for right and left circular polarizations. This definition of optical chirality in the polarization domain includes handedness-dependent phase velocities or optical absorption inside chiral media, which enable polarimetry for measuring the material concentration and circular dichroism spectroscopy for sensing biological or chemical enantiomers. Recently, the emerging field of non-Hermitian photonics, which explores exotic phenomena in gain or loss media, has provided a new viewpoint on chirality in photonics that is not restricted to the traditional polarization domain but is extended to other physical quantities such as the orbital angular momentum, propagation direction, and system parameter space. Here, we introduce recent milestones in chiral light-matter interactions in non-Hermitian photonics and show an enhanced degree of design freedom in photonic devices for spin and orbital angular momenta, directionality, and asymmetric modal conversion.

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Other (103)

M. K. Gaillard, P. D. Grannis, and F. J. SciulliThe standard model of particle physicsRev. Mod. Phys.199971S96

K. Soai, T. Shibata, H. Morioka, and K. ChojiAsymmetric autocatalysis and amplification of enantiomeric excess of a chiral moleculeNature1995378767768

P. L. PolavarapuOptical rotation: recent advances in determining the absolute configuratioChirality200214768781

Y. Tang and A. E. CohenOptical chirality and its interaction with matterPhys. Rev. Lett.2010104163901

K. Y. Bliokh and F. NoriCharacterizing optical chiralityPhys. Rev. A201183021803(R)

A. Serdyukov, I. Semchenko, S. Tretyakov, and A. SihvolaElectromagnetics of bi-anisotropic materials: Theory and applicationsGordon and Breach Science2001

A. Papakostas, A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. ZheludevOptical manifestations of planar chiralityPhys. Rev. Lett.200390107404

Y. Tang and A. E. CohenEnhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral lightScience2011332333336

J. B. PendryA chiral route to negative refractionScience200430613531355

X. Piao, S. Yu, J. Hong, and N. ParkSpectral separation of optical spin based on antisymmetric Fano resonancesSci. Rep.2015516585

A. B. Khanikaev, S. H. Mousavi, W. K. Tse, M. Kargarian, A. H. MacDonald, and G. ShvetsPhotonic topological insulatorsNat. Mater.201312233239

H.-E. Lee, H.-Y. Ahn, J. Mun, Y. Y. Lee, M. Kim, N. H. Cho, K. Chang, W. S. Kim, J. Rho, and K. T. NamAminoacid-and peptide-directed synthesis of chiral plasmonic gold nanoparticlesNature2018556360365

L. Feng, R. El-Ganainy, and L. GeNon-Hermitian photonics based on parity-time symmetryNat. Photonics201711752762

R. El-Ganainy, K. G. Makris, M. Khajavikhan, Z. H. Musslimani, S. Rotter, and D. N. ChristodoulidesNonHermitian physics and PT symmetryNat. Phys.2018141119

M.-A. Miri and A. AlùExceptional points in optics and photonicsScience2019363eaar7709

S. LonghiParity-time symmetry meets photonics: A new twist in non-Hermitian opticsEurophys. Lett.201812064001

R. El-Ganainy, M. Khajavikhan, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. K. OzdemirThe dawn of non-Hermitian opticsCommun. Phys.2019237

A. Regensburger, C. Bersch, M. A. Miri, G. Onishchukov, D. N. Christodoulides, and U. PeschelParity-time synthetic photonic latticesNature2012488167171

L. Feng, Z. J. Wong, R.-M. Ma, Y. Wang, and X. ZhangSingle-mode laser by parity-time symmetry breakingScience2014346972975

H. Hodaei, M.-A. Miri, M. Heinrich, D. N. Christodoulides, and M. KhajavikhanParity-time-symmetric microring lasersScience2014346975978

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. XiaoParity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonatorsNat. Photonics20148524529

Z. H. Musslimani, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, and D. N. ChristodoulidesOptical solitons in PT periodic potentialsPhys. Rev. Lett.2008100030402

C. M. Bender and S. BoettcherReal spectra in nonHermitian Hamiltonians having PT symmetryPhys. Rev. Lett.1998805243

C. M. Bender, D. C. Brody, and H. F. JonesComplex extension of quantum mechanicsPhys. Rev. Lett.200289270401

C. E. Rüter, K. G. Makris, R. El-Ganainy, D. N. Christodoulides, M. Segev, and D. KipObservation of parity-time symmetry in opticsNat. Phys.20106192195

A. Guo, G. J. Salamo, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, M. Volatier-Ravat, V. Aimez, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. ChristodoulidesObservation of PT-symmetry breaking in complex optical potentialsPhys. Rev. Lett.2009103093902

S. Weimann, M. Kremer, Y. Plotnik, Y. Lumer, S. Nolte, K. Makris, M. Segev, M. Rechtsman, and A. SzameitTopologically protected bound states in photonic parity-time-symmetric crystalsNat. Mater.201716433438

S. Assawaworrarit, X. Yu, and S. FanRobust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuitNature2017546387390

R. Fleury, D. L. Sounas, and A. AlùNegative refraction and planar focusing based on parity-time symmetric metasurfacesPhys. Rev. Lett.2014113023903

W. Heiss and H. HarneyThe chirality of exceptional pointsEur. Phys. J. D200117149151

W. D. HeissThe physics of exceptional pointsJ. Phys. A201245444016

W. D. Heiss, M. Müller, and I. RotterCollectivity, phase transitions, and exceptional points in open quantum systemsPhys. Rev. E1998582894

W. HeissRepulsion of resonance states and exceptional pointsPhys. Rev. E200061929932

S. Yu, X. Piao, D. R. Mason, S. In, and N. ParkSpatiospectral separation of exceptional points in PT-symmetric optical potentialsPhys. Rev. A201286031802

M. Lawrence, N. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Cong, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. ZhangManifestation of PT symmetry breaking in polarization space with terahertz metasurfacesPhys. Rev. Lett.2014113093901

S. Yu, H. S. Park, X. Piao, B. Min, and N. ParkLowdimensional optical chirality in complex potentialsOptica2016310251032

M. Kang and Y. D. ChongCoherent optical control of polarization with a critical metasurfacePhys. Rev. A201592043826

M. Kang, J. Chen, and Y. D. ChongChiral exceptional points in metasurfacesPhys. Rev. A201694033834

S. Yu, X. Piao, and N. ParkAcceleration toward polarization singularity inspired by relativistic E × B driftSci. Rep.2016637754

S. Yu, X. Piao, and N. ParkDesigning non-Hermitian dynamics for conservative state evolution on the Bloch spherPhys. Rev. A201897033805

A. Cerjan and S. FanAchieving arbitrary control over pairs of polarization states using complex birefringent metamaterialsPhys. Rev. Lett.2017118253902

B. Baum, M. Lawrence, D. Barton, J. Dionne, and H. AlaeianActive polarization control with a parity-time-symmetric plasmonic resonatorPhys. Rev. B201898165418

X. Piao, S. Yu, and N. ParkDesign of transverse spinning of light with globally unique handednessPhys. Rev. Lett.2018120203901

H. Kuratsuji and S. KakigiMaxwell-Schrödinger equation for polarized light and evolution of the Stokes parametersPhys. Rev. Lett.1998801888

D. L. Andrews and M. BabikerThe angular momentum of lightCambridge University PressCambridge, UK2012

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. RamachandranTerabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibersScience201334015451548

D. Naidoo, F. S. Roux, A. Dudley, I. Litvin, B. Piccirillo, L. Marrucci, and A. ForbesControlled generation of higherorder Poincaré sphere beams from a laserNat. Photonics201610327332

R. C. Devlin, A. Ambrosio, N. A. Rubin, J. B. Mueller, and F. CapassoArbitrary spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion of lightScience2017358896901

A. Mock, D. Sounas, and A. AlùTunable orbital angular momentum radiation from angular-momentum-biased microcavitiesPhys. Rev. Lett.2018121103901

N. C. Zambon, P. St-Jean, M. Milićević, A. Lemaître, A. Harouri, L. Le Gratiet, O. Bleu, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, I. Sagnes, S. Ravets, A. Amo, and J. BlochOptically controlling the emission chirality of microlasersNat. Photonics201913283288

C. Dembowski, B. Dietz, H. D. Gräf, H. L. Harney, A. Heine, W. D. Heiss, and A. RichterObservation of a chiral state in a microwave cavityPhys. Rev. Lett.200390034101

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