Abstract

The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted with the diffusion model for semi-infinite homogenous media. Reproducibility, performed on 3 measurements at 5 minutes intervals, ranges from 1.8 to 6.9% for each of the hemoglobin species. The mean ± SD global values of HbR, HbO, HbT, StO2 are respectively 24 ± 7 μM, 33.3 ± 9.5 μM, 57.4 ± 15.8 μM, 58 ± 4.2%. StO2 displays the narrowest range of variability across brain regions.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2016 (6)

I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy : issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Auger, L. Bherer, É. Boucher, R. Hoge, F. Lesage, and M. Dehaes, “Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 3826–3842 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Moreau, R. Yang, V. Nambiar, A. M. Demchuk, and J. F. Dunn, “Near-infrared measurements of brain oxygenation in stroke,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031403 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Alderliesten, L. Dix, W. Baerts, A. Caicedo, S. van Huffel, G. Naulaers, F. Groenendaal, F. van Bel, and P. Lemmers, “Reference values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation during the first 3 days of life in preterm neonates,” Pediatr. Res. 79(1-1), 55–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. Wen, A. H. Cross, and D. A. Yablonskiy, “On the relationship between cellular and hemodynamic properties of the human brain cortex throughout adult lifespan,” Neuroimage 133, 417–429 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. R. Honarmand, S. Schnell, R. Kuhn, S. E. Schoeneman, S. A. Ansari, J. Carr, M. Markl, and A. Shaibani, “Age-related changes of normal cerebral and cardiac blood flow in children and adults aged 7 months to 61 years,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 5(1), 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

J. B. De Vis, J. Hendrikse, A. Bhogal, A. Adams, L. J. Kappelle, and E. T. Petersen, “Age-related changes in brain hemodynamics; a calibrated MRI study,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 36(10), 3973–3987 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, T. Liu, A. Gupta, P. Spincemaille, T. D. Nguyen, and Y. Wang, “Quantitative mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM),” Magn. Reson. Med. 74(4), 945–952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Bourisly, A. El-Beltagi, J. Cherian, G. Gejo, A. Al-Jazzaf, and M. Ismail, “A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old,” Neuroradiol. J. 28(5), 450–459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo Multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

T. W. Hessel, S. Hyttel-Sorensen, and G. Greisen, “Cerebral oxygenation after birth - a comparison of INVOS and FORE-SIGH near-infrared spectroscopy oximeters,” Acta Paediatr. 103(5), 488–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” NeuroImage 85, 6–27 (2014).

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, “NIRS in clinical neurology - a ‘promising’ tool?” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 535–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, M. Wysocki, E. Guerrero-Berroa, M. Schnaider Beeri, V. Haroutunian, M. Shaul, I. H. Rosenberg, A. M. Troen, and S. Fantini, “Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sasai, F. Homae, H. Watanabe, A. T. Sasaki, H. C. Tanabe, N. Sadato, and G. Taga, “A NIRS-fMRI study of resting state network,” Neuroimage 63(1), 179–193 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yuan, V. Zotev, R. Phillips, W. C. Drevets, and J. Bodurka, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest-Exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2062–2072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. J. Chen, H. D. Rosas, and D. H. Salat, “Age-associated reductions in cerebral blood flow are independent from regional atrophy,” Neuroimage 55(2), 468–478 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Canova, S. Roatta, D. Bosone, and G. Micieli, “Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110(6), 1646–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. I. Maas and G. Citerio, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in traumatic brain injury: a mix of doubts and hope,” Intensive Care Med. 36(8), 1283–1285 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ibaraki, Y. Shinohara, K. Nakamura, S. Miura, F. Kinoshita, and T. Kinoshita, “Interindividual variations of cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, and metabolism in relation to hemoglobin concentration measured by positron emission tomography in humans,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 30(7), 1296–1305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Mahlknecht and S. Kaiser, “Age-related changes in peripheral blood counts in humans,” Exp. Ther. Med. 1(6), 1019–1025 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

L. Koessler, L. Maillard, A. Benhadid, J. P. Vignal, J. Felblinger, H. Vespignani, and M. Braun, “Automated cortical projection of EEG sensors: anatomical correlation via the international 10-10 system,” Neuroimage 46(1), 64–72 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

J. W. Bartlett and C. Frost, “Reliability, repeatability and reproducibility: analysis of measurement errors in continuous variables,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 31(4), 466–475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Horovitz, M. Fukunaga, J. A. de Zwart, P. van Gelderen, S. C. Fulton, T. J. Balkin, and J. H. Duyn, “Low frequency BOLD fluctuations during resting wakefulness and light sleep: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(6), 671–682 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2005 (3)

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dullenkopf, A. Kolarova, G. Schulz, B. Frey, O. Baenziger, and M. Weiss, “Reproducibility of cerebral oxygenation measurement in neonates and infants in the clinical setting using the NIRO 300 oximeter,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 6(3), 344–347 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, and R. Cubeddu, “Bilateral prefrontal cortex oxygenation responses to a verbal fluency task: a multichannel time-resolved near-infrared topography study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011012 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Chieregato, F. Calzolari, G. Trasforini, L. Targa, and N. Latronico, “Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74(6), 784–786 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Menke, U. Voss, G. Möller, and G. Jorch, “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates,” Biol. Neonate 83(1), 6–11 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Scahill, C. Frost, R. Jenkins, J. L. Whitwell, M. N. Rossor, and N. C. Fox, “A longitudinal study of brain volume changes in normal aging using serial registered magnetic resonance imaging,” Arch. Neurol. 60(7), 989–994 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. E. Raichle, A. M. MacLeod, A. Z. Snyder, W. J. Powers, D. A. Gusnard, and G. L. Shulman, “A default mode of brain function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(2), 676–682 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ito, I. Kanno, H. Iida, J. Hatazawa, E. Shimosegawa, H. Tamura, and T. Okudera, “Arterial fraction of cerebral blood volume in humans measured by positron emission tomography,” Ann. Nucl. Med. 15(2), 111–116 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Good, I. S. Johnsrude, J. Ashburner, R. N. Henson, K. J. Friston, and R. S. Frackowiak, “A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains,” Neuroimage 14(1), 21–36 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. C. Meltzer, M. N. Cantwell, P. J. Greer, D. Ben-Eliezer, G. Smith, G. Frank, W. H. Kaye, P. R. Houck, and J. C. Price, “Does cerebral blood flow decline in healthy aging? A PET study with partial-volume correction,” J. Nucl. Med. 41(11), 1842–1848 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measurement error,” BMJ 312(7047), 1654 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wenz, K. Rempp, G. Brix, M. V. Knopp, F. Gückel, T. Hess, and G. van Kaick, “Age dependency of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measured with dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC),” Magn. Reson. Imaging 14(2), 157–162 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

B. Biswal, F. Z. Yetkin, V. M. Haughton, and J. S. Hyde, “Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 34(4), 537–541 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

G. Marchal, P. Rioux, M. C. Petit-Taboué, G. Sette, J. M. Travère, C. Le Poec, P. Courtheoux, J. M. Derlon, and J. C. Baron, “Regional cerebral oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood volume in healthy human aging,” Arch. Neurol. 49(10), 1013–1020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammertsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, and R. S. J. Frackowiak, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age,” Brain 113(1), 27–47 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

T. Yamaguchi, I. Kanno, K. Uemura, F. Shishido, A. Inugami, T. Ogawa, M. Murakami, and K. Suzuki, “Reduction in regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen during human aging,” Stroke 17(6), 1220–1228 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Royal College of Physicians, “Research on healthy subjects,” J R Coll Physicians 20, 243–257 (1986).

1984 (1)

P. Pantano, J. C. Baron, P. Lebrun-Grandié, N. Duquesnoy, M. G. Bousser, and D. Comar, “Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in human aging,” Stroke 15(4), 635–641 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1942 (1)

E. L. Gibbs, W. G. Lennox, and L. F. Nims, “Arterial and cerebral venous blood. Arterial-venous differences in man,” J. Biol. Chem. 144, 325–332 (1942).

Adams, A.

J. B. De Vis, J. Hendrikse, A. Bhogal, A. Adams, L. J. Kappelle, and E. T. Petersen, “Age-related changes in brain hemodynamics; a calibrated MRI study,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 36(10), 3973–3987 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alderliesten, T.

T. Alderliesten, L. Dix, W. Baerts, A. Caicedo, S. van Huffel, G. Naulaers, F. Groenendaal, F. van Bel, and P. Lemmers, “Reference values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation during the first 3 days of life in preterm neonates,” Pediatr. Res. 79(1-1), 55–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Jazzaf, A.

A. K. Bourisly, A. El-Beltagi, J. Cherian, G. Gejo, A. Al-Jazzaf, and M. Ismail, “A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old,” Neuroradiol. J. 28(5), 450–459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measurement error,” BMJ 312(7047), 1654 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Andreou, P.

S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
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Ansari, S. A.

C. Wu, A. R. Honarmand, S. Schnell, R. Kuhn, S. E. Schoeneman, S. A. Ansari, J. Carr, M. Markl, and A. Shaibani, “Age-related changes of normal cerebral and cardiac blood flow in children and adults aged 7 months to 61 years,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 5(1), 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arri, S. J.

S. J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashburner, J.

C. D. Good, I. S. Johnsrude, J. Ashburner, R. N. Henson, K. J. Friston, and R. S. Frackowiak, “A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains,” Neuroimage 14(1), 21–36 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auger, H.

Avrillier, S.

Baenziger, O.

A. Dullenkopf, A. Kolarova, G. Schulz, B. Frey, O. Baenziger, and M. Weiss, “Reproducibility of cerebral oxygenation measurement in neonates and infants in the clinical setting using the NIRO 300 oximeter,” Pediatr. Crit. Care Med. 6(3), 344–347 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baerts, W.

T. Alderliesten, L. Dix, W. Baerts, A. Caicedo, S. van Huffel, G. Naulaers, F. Groenendaal, F. van Bel, and P. Lemmers, “Reference values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation during the first 3 days of life in preterm neonates,” Pediatr. Res. 79(1-1), 55–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balkin, T. J.

S. G. Horovitz, M. Fukunaga, J. A. de Zwart, P. van Gelderen, S. C. Fulton, T. J. Balkin, and J. H. Duyn, “Low frequency BOLD fluctuations during resting wakefulness and light sleep: a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 29(6), 671–682 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bargigia, I.

Baron, J. C.

G. Marchal, P. Rioux, M. C. Petit-Taboué, G. Sette, J. M. Travère, C. Le Poec, P. Courtheoux, J. M. Derlon, and J. C. Baron, “Regional cerebral oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood volume in healthy human aging,” Arch. Neurol. 49(10), 1013–1020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pantano, J. C. Baron, P. Lebrun-Grandié, N. Duquesnoy, M. G. Bousser, and D. Comar, “Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in human aging,” Stroke 15(4), 635–641 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartlett, J. W.

J. W. Bartlett and C. Frost, “Reliability, repeatability and reproducibility: analysis of measurement errors in continuous variables,” Ultrasound Obstet. Gynecol. 31(4), 466–475 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Beaney, R. P.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammertsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, and R. S. J. Frackowiak, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age,” Brain 113(1), 27–47 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Eliezer, D.

C. C. Meltzer, M. N. Cantwell, P. J. Greer, D. Ben-Eliezer, G. Smith, G. Frank, W. H. Kaye, P. R. Houck, and J. C. Price, “Does cerebral blood flow decline in healthy aging? A PET study with partial-volume correction,” J. Nucl. Med. 41(11), 1842–1848 (2000).
[PubMed]

Benhadid, A.

L. Koessler, L. Maillard, A. Benhadid, J. P. Vignal, J. Felblinger, H. Vespignani, and M. Braun, “Automated cortical projection of EEG sensors: anatomical correlation via the international 10-10 system,” Neuroimage 46(1), 64–72 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bherer, L.

Bhogal, A.

J. B. De Vis, J. Hendrikse, A. Bhogal, A. Adams, L. J. Kappelle, and E. T. Petersen, “Age-related changes in brain hemodynamics; a calibrated MRI study,” Hum. Brain Mapp. 36(10), 3973–3987 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biallas, M.

S. J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

Biswal, B.

B. Biswal, F. Z. Yetkin, V. M. Haughton, and J. S. Hyde, “Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 34(4), 537–541 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measurement error,” BMJ 312(7047), 1654 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054019 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bodurka, J.

H. Yuan, V. Zotev, R. Phillips, W. C. Drevets, and J. Bodurka, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest-Exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2062–2072 (2012).
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Bogousslavsky, J.

L. Tatu, T. Moulin, J. Bogousslavsky, and H. Duvernoy, “Arterial territories of the human brain: cerebral hemispheres,” Neurology 50(6), 1699–1708 (1998).
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Bosone, D.

D. Canova, S. Roatta, D. Bosone, and G. Micieli, “Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110(6), 1646–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, É.

Bourisly, A. K.

A. K. Bourisly, A. El-Beltagi, J. Cherian, G. Gejo, A. Al-Jazzaf, and M. Ismail, “A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old,” Neuroradiol. J. 28(5), 450–459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousser, M. G.

P. Pantano, J. C. Baron, P. Lebrun-Grandié, N. Duquesnoy, M. G. Bousser, and D. Comar, “Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in human aging,” Stroke 15(4), 635–641 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, J.

Braun, M.

L. Koessler, L. Maillard, A. Benhadid, J. P. Vignal, J. Felblinger, H. Vespignani, and M. Braun, “Automated cortical projection of EEG sensors: anatomical correlation via the international 10-10 system,” Neuroimage 46(1), 64–72 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brix, G.

F. Wenz, K. Rempp, G. Brix, M. V. Knopp, F. Gückel, T. Hess, and G. van Kaick, “Age dependency of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measured with dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC),” Magn. Reson. Imaging 14(2), 157–162 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooks, D. J.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammertsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, and R. S. J. Frackowiak, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age,” Brain 113(1), 27–47 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucher, H. U.

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckingham, P.

K. L. Leenders, D. Perani, A. A. Lammertsma, J. D. Heather, P. Buckingham, M. J. Healy, J. M. Gibbs, R. J. Wise, J. Hatazawa, S. Herold, R. P. Beaney, D. J. Brooks, T. Spinks, C. Rhodes, and R. S. J. Frackowiak, “Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age,” Brain 113(1), 27–47 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caffini, M.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caicedo, A.

T. Alderliesten, L. Dix, W. Baerts, A. Caicedo, S. van Huffel, G. Naulaers, F. Groenendaal, F. van Bel, and P. Lemmers, “Reference values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation during the first 3 days of life in preterm neonates,” Pediatr. Res. 79(1-1), 55–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calzolari, F.

A. Chieregato, F. Calzolari, G. Trasforini, L. Targa, and N. Latronico, “Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74(6), 784–786 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canova, D.

D. Canova, S. Roatta, D. Bosone, and G. Micieli, “Inconsistent detection of changes in cerebral blood volume by near infrared spectroscopy in standard clinical tests,” J. Appl. Physiol. 110(6), 1646–1655 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cantwell, M. N.

C. C. Meltzer, M. N. Cantwell, P. J. Greer, D. Ben-Eliezer, G. Smith, G. Frank, W. H. Kaye, P. R. Houck, and J. C. Price, “Does cerebral blood flow decline in healthy aging? A PET study with partial-volume correction,” J. Nucl. Med. 41(11), 1842–1848 (2000).
[PubMed]

Carr, J.

C. Wu, A. R. Honarmand, S. Schnell, R. Kuhn, S. E. Schoeneman, S. A. Ansari, J. Carr, M. Markl, and A. Shaibani, “Age-related changes of normal cerebral and cardiac blood flow in children and adults aged 7 months to 61 years,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 5(1), 1–14 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbel, F.

R. Gatto, W. E. Hoffman, M. Mueller, C. Paisansathan, and F. Charbel, “Age effects on brain oxygenation during hypercapnia,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(6), 062113 (2007).
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Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, H. D. Rosas, and D. H. Salat, “Age-associated reductions in cerebral blood flow are independent from regional atrophy,” Neuroimage 55(2), 468–478 (2011).
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Cherian, J.

A. K. Bourisly, A. El-Beltagi, J. Cherian, G. Gejo, A. Al-Jazzaf, and M. Ismail, “A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old,” Neuroradiol. J. 28(5), 450–459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chieregato, A.

A. Chieregato, F. Calzolari, G. Trasforini, L. Targa, and N. Latronico, “Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74(6), 784–786 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Citerio, G.

A. I. Maas and G. Citerio, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in traumatic brain injury: a mix of doubts and hope,” Intensive Care Med. 36(8), 1283–1285 (2010).
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Comar, D.

P. Pantano, J. C. Baron, P. Lebrun-Grandié, N. Duquesnoy, M. G. Bousser, and D. Comar, “Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption in human aging,” Stroke 15(4), 635–641 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comelli, D.

Contini, D.

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
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C. D’Andrea, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, A. Giusto, D. Contini, J. Swartling, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved spectrally constrained method for the quantification of chromophore concentrations and scattering parameters in diffusing media,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1888–1898 (2006).
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D. Contini, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Photon migration through a turbid slab described by a model based on diffusion approximation. I. Theory,” Appl. Opt. 36(19), 4587–4599 (1997).
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Courtheoux, P.

G. Marchal, P. Rioux, M. C. Petit-Taboué, G. Sette, J. M. Travère, C. Le Poec, P. Courtheoux, J. M. Derlon, and J. C. Baron, “Regional cerebral oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood volume in healthy human aging,” Arch. Neurol. 49(10), 1013–1020 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cross, A. H.

Y. Zhao, J. Wen, A. H. Cross, and D. A. Yablonskiy, “On the relationship between cellular and hemodynamic properties of the human brain cortex throughout adult lifespan,” Neuroimage 133, 417–429 (2016).
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Cubeddu, R.

A. Farina, A. Torricelli, I. Bargigia, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Foschum, M. Jäger, E. Simon, O. Fugger, A. Kienle, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, M. Kacprzak, A. Liebert, and A. Pifferi, “In-vivo Multilaboratory investigation of the optical properties of the human head,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2609–2623 (2015).
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H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
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Swartling, J.

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I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy : issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
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D. Comelli, A. Bassi, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “In vivo time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy of the human forehead,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1717–1725 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D’Andrea, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, A. Giusto, D. Contini, J. Swartling, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved spectrally constrained method for the quantification of chromophore concentrations and scattering parameters in diffusing media,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1888–1898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, A. Bassi, P. Taroni, R. Cubeddu, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, M. Möller, R. Macdonald, J. Swartling, T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, R. L. van Veen, H. J. Sterenborg, J. M. Tualle, H. L. Nghiem, S. Avrillier, M. Whelan, and H. Stamm, “Performance assessment of photon migration instruments: the MEDPHOT protocol,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2104–2114 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, A. Pifferi, and R. Cubeddu, “Bilateral prefrontal cortex oxygenation responses to a verbal fluency task: a multichannel time-resolved near-infrared topography study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011012 (2005).
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C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
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A. Chieregato, F. Calzolari, G. Trasforini, L. Targa, and N. Latronico, “Normal jugular bulb oxygen saturation,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 74(6), 784–786 (2003).
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G. Marchal, P. Rioux, M. C. Petit-Taboué, G. Sette, J. M. Travère, C. Le Poec, P. Courtheoux, J. M. Derlon, and J. C. Baron, “Regional cerebral oxygen consumption, blood flow, and blood volume in healthy human aging,” Arch. Neurol. 49(10), 1013–1020 (1992).
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B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, M. Wysocki, E. Guerrero-Berroa, M. Schnaider Beeri, V. Haroutunian, M. Shaul, I. H. Rosenberg, A. M. Troen, and S. Fantini, “Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081406 (2012).
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T. Yamaguchi, I. Kanno, K. Uemura, F. Shishido, A. Inugami, T. Ogawa, M. Murakami, and K. Suzuki, “Reduction in regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen during human aging,” Stroke 17(6), 1220–1228 (1986).
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T. Alderliesten, L. Dix, W. Baerts, A. Caicedo, S. van Huffel, G. Naulaers, F. Groenendaal, F. van Bel, and P. Lemmers, “Reference values of regional cerebral oxygen saturation during the first 3 days of life in preterm neonates,” Pediatr. Res. 79(1-1), 55–64 (2016).
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F. Wenz, K. Rempp, G. Brix, M. V. Knopp, F. Gückel, T. Hess, and G. van Kaick, “Age dependency of the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) measured with dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC),” Magn. Reson. Imaging 14(2), 157–162 (1996).
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S. Vaz, T. Falkmer, A. E. Passmore, R. Parsons, and P. Andreou, “The case for using the repeatability coefficient when calculating test-retest reliability,” PLoS One 8(9), e73990 (2013).
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L. Koessler, L. Maillard, A. Benhadid, J. P. Vignal, J. Felblinger, H. Vespignani, and M. Braun, “Automated cortical projection of EEG sensors: anatomical correlation via the international 10-10 system,” Neuroimage 46(1), 64–72 (2009).
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J. Menke, U. Voss, G. Möller, and G. Jorch, “Reproducibility of cerebral near infrared spectroscopy in neonates,” Biol. Neonate 83(1), 6–11 (2003).
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S. J. Arri, T. Muehlemann, M. Biallas, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Precision of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration measurements in neonates measured by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(4), 047005 (2011).
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J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
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F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” NeuroImage 85, 6–27 (2014).

J. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
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B. Hallacoglu, A. Sassaroli, M. Wysocki, E. Guerrero-Berroa, M. Schnaider Beeri, V. Haroutunian, M. Shaul, I. H. Rosenberg, A. M. Troen, and S. Fantini, “Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 081406 (2012).
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Y. Zhao, J. Wen, A. H. Cross, and D. A. Yablonskiy, “On the relationship between cellular and hemodynamic properties of the human brain cortex throughout adult lifespan,” Neuroimage 133, 417–429 (2016).
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T. Yamaguchi, I. Kanno, K. Uemura, F. Shishido, A. Inugami, T. Ogawa, M. Murakami, and K. Suzuki, “Reduction in regional cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen during human aging,” Stroke 17(6), 1220–1228 (1986).
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Yang, R.

F. Moreau, R. Yang, V. Nambiar, A. M. Demchuk, and J. F. Dunn, “Near-infrared measurements of brain oxygenation in stroke,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031403 (2016).
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B. Biswal, F. Z. Yetkin, V. M. Haughton, and J. S. Hyde, “Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain using echo-planar MRI,” Magn. Reson. Med. 34(4), 537–541 (1995).
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Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, T. Liu, A. Gupta, P. Spincemaille, T. D. Nguyen, and Y. Wang, “Quantitative mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM),” Magn. Reson. Med. 74(4), 945–952 (2015).
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Y. Zhao, J. Wen, A. H. Cross, and D. A. Yablonskiy, “On the relationship between cellular and hemodynamic properties of the human brain cortex throughout adult lifespan,” Neuroimage 133, 417–429 (2016).
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F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” NeuroImage 85, 6–27 (2014).

Zolek, N.

H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
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A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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L. Gagnon, C. Gauthier, R. D. Hoge, F. Lesage, J. Selb, and D. A. Boas, “Double-layer estimation of intra- and extracerebral hemoglobin concentration with a time-resolved system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054019 (2008).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jenny, M. Biallas, I. Trajkovic, J. C. Fauchère, H. U. Bucher, and M. Wolf, “Reproducibility of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measurements by near-infrared spectroscopy in newborn infants,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(9), 097004 (2011).
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L. C. Sorensen and G. Greisen, “Precision of measurement of cerebral tissue oxygenation index using near-infrared spectroscopy in preterm neonates,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(5), 054005 (2006).
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H. Wabnitz, A. Jelzow, M. Mazurenka, O. Steinkellner, R. Macdonald, D. Milej, N. Żołek, M. Kacprzak, P. Sawosz, R. Maniewski, A. Liebert, S. Magazov, J. Hebden, F. Martelli, P. Di Ninni, G. Zaccanti, A. Torricelli, D. Contini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, and A. Pifferi, “Performance assessment of time-domain optical brain imagers, part 2: nEUROPt protocol,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 086012 (2014).
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J. Zhang, T. Liu, A. Gupta, P. Spincemaille, T. D. Nguyen, and Y. Wang, “Quantitative mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM),” Magn. Reson. Med. 74(4), 945–952 (2015).
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S. Sasai, F. Homae, H. Watanabe, A. T. Sasaki, H. C. Tanabe, N. Sadato, and G. Taga, “A NIRS-fMRI study of resting state network,” Neuroimage 63(1), 179–193 (2012).
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H. Yuan, V. Zotev, R. Phillips, W. C. Drevets, and J. Bodurka, “Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest-Exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks,” Neuroimage 60(4), 2062–2072 (2012).
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Y. Zhao, J. Wen, A. H. Cross, and D. A. Yablonskiy, “On the relationship between cellular and hemodynamic properties of the human brain cortex throughout adult lifespan,” Neuroimage 133, 417–429 (2016).
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F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” NeuroImage 85, 6–27 (2014).

A. Torricelli, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, M. Caffini, R. Re, L. Zucchelli, and L. Spinelli, “Time domain functional NIRS imaging for human brain mapping,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 28–50 (2014).
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I. Tachtsidis and F. Scholkmann, “False positives and false negatives in functional near-infrared spectroscopy : issues, challenges, and the way forward,” Neurophotonics 3(3), 031405 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IRF (green diamond) and TD-NIRS curves (red square) at 690, 785, and 830 nm respectively fitted data with a homogeneous model is also shown (black line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the international 10-10 positioning system. Bold characters indicate the 12 positions (six pairs of source and detector) selected in the study. The first letter of the position indicates the region: F stands for frontal, C for central, P for parietal region. Positions in the left hemisphere end with an odd number; an even number indicates the right hemisphere. Red and green disks represent respectively source and detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bland-Altman plots for HbR (a), HbO (b), HbT (c), StO2 (d). Each dot represents one recording position for each individual; x-axis: mean value between the 3 measurements for each recording position (units are μM for a, b and c, % for d); y-axis: difference between one measurement and the mean of the 3 recordings (units are μM for a, b and c; % for d). Legend: Bias: average value of y-axis; Upper LoA: Upper Limit of Agreement (bias + 2.77*standard deviation); Lower LoA: Lower Limit of Agreement (bias-2.77*standard deviation) [36].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Line plot of mean values in different age decades. Symbols represent mean values at that decade for each hemoglobin species and oxygen saturation. Mean concentrations of HbR, HbO, HbT are expressed in µM (y axis on the left); mean values of StO2 are expressed as % (y axis on the right). Error bars represents CI 95%.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Cerebral hemoglobin species: mean concentrations on adults from previous studies.

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Table 2 Demographic data of the enrolled subjects

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Table 3 Repeated measures ANOVA: reproducibility of hemoglobin species and StO2 for each position

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Table 4 Repeated measures ANOVA: reproducibility of absorption coefficient (μa) for each position

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Table 5 Repeated measures ANOVA: reproducibility of reduced scattering coefficient (µs’) for each position

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Table 6 Mean values of hemoglobin species in different head regions

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Table 7 Mean values of optical properties in different head regions

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Table 8 Global mean values of hemoglobin species and optical properties in two age groups

Equations (3)

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μ s ' (λ)=a (λ/ λ 0 ) b
μ a (λ)= ε HbO (λ) C HbO + ε HbR (λ) C HbR + ε H 2 O (λ) C H 2 O
RL= 2 *1.96*S D w