Abstract

Emerging van der Waals materials exhibit a wide range of optical and electronic properties, making them attractive for nanophotonic devices. Due to the nature of van der Waals interactions, this new class of materials can be readily integrated with other existing nanophotonic structures, leading to novel device architectures and operating principles. In this review, we will present the progress of active nanophotonics, realized by integrating van der Waals materials with on-chip optical waveguides or resonators. Additionally, we will review the emerging research area in van der Waals nanophotonics, where the nanophotonic structures are fully made of van der Waals materials. A variety of van der Waals nanophotonic structures, ranging from ultrathin Fresnel lens, metasurfaces to photonic crystal cavities and their potential impacts on miniaturized optical system and quantum technology will be discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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D. Schall, M. Mohsin, A. A. Sagade, M. Otto, B. Chmielak, S. Suckow, A. L. Giesecke, D. Neumaier, and H. Kurz, “Infrared transparent graphene heater for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 24(8), 7871–7878 (2016).
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L. H. Yu, Y. L. Yin, Y. C. Shi, D. X. Dai, and S. L. He, “Thermally tunable silicon photonic microdisk resonator with transparent graphene nanoheaters,” Optica 3(2), 159–166 (2016).
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D. Jariwala, A. R. Davoyan, G. Tagliabue, M. C. Sherrott, J. Wong, and H. A. Atwater, “Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5482–5487 (2016).
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S. Schuler, D. Schall, D. Neumaier, L. Dobusch, O. Bethge, B. Schwarz, M. Krall, and T. Mueller, “Controlled Generation of a p-n Junction in a Waveguide Integrated Graphene Photodetector,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7107–7112 (2016).
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F. Yi, M. Ren, J. C. Reed, H. Zhu, J. Hou, C. H. Naylor, A. T. C. Johnson, R. Agarwal, and E. Cubukcu, “Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1631–1636 (2016).
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J. Yang, Z. Wang, F. Wang, R. Xu, J. Tao, S. Zhang, Q. Qin, B. Luther-Davies, C. Jagadish, Z. Yu, and Y. Lu, “Atomically thin optical lenses and gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(3), e16046 (2016).
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O. L. Sanchez, D. Ovchinnikov, S. Misra, A. Allain, and A. Kis, “Valley Polarization by Spin Injection in a Light-Emitting van der Waals Heterojunction,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5792–5797 (2016).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 598–602 (2016).
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Y. Liu, N. O. Weiss, X. D. Duan, H. C. Cheng, Y. Huang, and X. F. Duan, “Van der Waals heterostructures and devices,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(9), 16042 (2016).
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2015 (25)

K. Kang, S. Xie, L. Huang, Y. Han, P. Y. Huang, K. F. Mak, C. J. Kim, D. Muller, and J. Park, “High-mobility three-atom-thick semiconducting films with wafer-scale homogeneity,” Nature 520(7549), 656–660 (2015).
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A. Majumdar, C. M. Dodson, T. K. Fryett, A. Zhan, S. Buckley, and D. Gerace, “Hybrid 2D Material Nanophotonics: A Scalable Platform for Low-Power Nonlinear and Quantum Optics,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1160–1166 (2015).
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R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, Y. Wang, C. Peng, A. D. Robertson, D. K. Efetov, S. Assefa, F. H. L. Koppens, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-Responsivity Graphene-Boron Nitride Photodetector and Autocorrelator in a Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7288–7293 (2015).
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G. Wang, X. Marie, I. Gerber, T. Amand, D. Lagarde, L. Bouet, M. Vidal, A. Balocchi, and B. Urbaszek, “Giant enhancement of the optical second-harmonic emission of WSe2 monolayers by laser excitation at exciton resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 097403 (2015).
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W. Wang, A. Klots, D. Prasai, Y. Yang, K. I. Bolotin, and J. Valentine, “Hot Electron-Based Near-Infrared Photodetection Using Bilayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 15(11), 7440–7444 (2015).
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S. Gan, C. Cheng, Y. Zhan, B. Huang, X. Gan, S. Li, S. Lin, X. Li, J. Zhao, H. Chen, and Q. Bao, “A highly efficient thermo-optic microring modulator assisted by graphene,” Nanoscale 7(47), 20249–20255 (2015).
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Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4393–4400 (2015).
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D. Ansell, I. P. Radko, Z. Han, F. J. Rodriguez, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and A. N. Grigorenko, “Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8846 (2015).
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J. C. Reed, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Wavelength tunable microdisk cavity light source with a chemically enhanced MoS2 emitter,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1967–1971 (2015).
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Y. Gao, R. J. Shiue, X. Gan, L. Li, C. Peng, I. Meric, L. Wang, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “High-speed electro-optic modulator integrated with graphene-boron nitride heterostructure and photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 2001–2005 (2015).
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C. T. Phare, Y. H. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
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F. Withers, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, A. Mishchenko, A. P. Rooney, A. Gholinia, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. J. Haigh, A. K. Geim, A. I. Tartakovskii, and K. S. Novoselov, “Light-emitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 301–306 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, D. Calhoun, Q. Li, R. Hendry, P. Samadi, and K. Bergman, “Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1159–1175 (2015).
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G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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X. Z. Liu, T. Galfsky, Z. Sun, F. N. Xia, E. C. Lin, Y. H. Lee, S. Kena-Cohen, and V. M. Menon, “Strong light-matter coupling in two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 9(1), 30–34 (2015).
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S. Dufferwiel, S. Schwarz, F. Withers, A. A. P. Trichet, F. Li, M. Sich, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, C. Clark, A. Nalitov, D. D. Solnyshkov, G. Malpuech, K. S. Novoselov, J. M. Smith, M. S. Skolnick, D. N. Krizhanovskii, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Exciton-polaritons in van der Waals heterostructures embedded in tunable microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8579 (2015).
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S. Wu, S. Buckley, J. R. Schaibley, L. Feng, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, F. Hatami, W. Yao, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds,” Nature 520(7545), 69–72 (2015).
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Y. Ye, Z. J. Wong, X. F. Lu, X. J. Ni, H. Y. Zhu, X. H. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Monolayer excitonic laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 733–737 (2015).
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O. Salehzadeh, M. Djavid, N. H. Tran, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Optically Pumped Two-Dimensional MoS2 Lasers Operating at Room-Temperature,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5302–5306 (2015).
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2014 (16)

R. Cheng, D. Li, H. Zhou, C. Wang, A. Yin, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Electroluminescence and photocurrent generation from atomically sharp WSe2/MoS2 heterojunction p-n diodes,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5590–5597 (2014).
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J. S. Ross, P. Klement, A. M. Jones, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, K. Kitamura, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrically tunable excitonic light-emitting diodes based on monolayer WSe2 p-n junctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 268–272 (2014).
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A. Pospischil, M. M. Furchi, and T. Mueller, “Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 257–261 (2014).
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B. W. H. Baugher, H. O. H. Churchill, Y. Yang, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 262–267 (2014).
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S. Schwarz, S. Dufferwiel, P. M. Walker, F. Withers, A. A. P. Trichet, M. Sich, F. Li, E. A. Chekhovich, D. N. Borisenko, N. N. Kolesnikov, K. S. Novoselov, M. S. Skolnick, J. M. Smith, D. N. Krizhanovskii, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Two-dimensional metal-chalcogenide films in tunable optical microcavities,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 7003–7008 (2014).
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F. N. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
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L. H. Yu, D. X. Dai, and S. L. He, “Graphene-based transparent flexible heat conductor for thermally tuning nanophotonic integrated devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(25), 251104 (2014).
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C. H. Liu, Y. C. Chang, T. B. Norris, and Z. Zhong, “Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 273–278 (2014).
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F. H. L. Koppens, T. Mueller, P. Avouris, A. C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, and M. Polini, “Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 780–793 (2014).
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L. Yu, J. Zheng, Y. Xu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11386–11393 (2014).
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A. Majumdar and A. Rundquist, “Cavity-enabled self-electro-optic bistability in silicon photonics,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3864–3867 (2014).
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D. Schall, D. Neumaier, M. Mohsin, B. Chmielak, J. Bolten, C. Porschatis, A. Prinzen, C. Matheisen, W. Kuebart, B. Junginger, W. Templ, A. L. Giesecke, and H. Kurz, “50 GBit/s Photodetectors Based on Wafer-Scale Graphene for Integrated Silicon Photonic Communication Systems,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 781–784 (2014).
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X. D. Xu, W. Yao, D. Xiao, and T. F. Heinz, “Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Phys. 10(5), 343–350 (2014).
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Y. J. Zhang, T. Oka, R. Suzuki, J. T. Ye, and Y. Iwasa, “Electrically switchable chiral light-emitting transistor,” Science 344(6185), 725–728 (2014).
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K. F. Mak, K. L. McGill, J. Park, and P. L. McEuen, “Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors,” Science 344(6191), 1489–1492 (2014).
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2013 (10)

R. J. Shiue, X. T. Gan, Y. D. Gao, L. Z. Li, X. W. Yao, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Enhanced photodetection in graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241109 (2013).
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X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
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A. Pospischil, M. Humer, M. M. Furchi, D. Bachmann, R. Guider, T. Fromherz, and T. Mueller, “CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 892–896 (2013).
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X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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M. Freitag, T. Low, F. N. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
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J. T. Kim, K. H. Chung, and C. G. Choi, “Thermo-optic mode extinction modulator based on graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15280–15286 (2013).
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A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
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X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, K. F. Mak, X. Yao, L. Li, A. Szep, D. Walker, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “High-contrast electrooptic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity by electrical gating of graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 691–696 (2013).
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X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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2012 (9)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
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S. J. Koester, H. Li, and M. Li, “Switching energy limits of waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20330–20341 (2012).
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A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
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M. Furchi, A. Urich, A. Pospischil, G. Lilley, K. Unterrainer, H. Detz, P. Klang, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and T. Mueller, “Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2773–2777 (2012).
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M. Engel, M. Steiner, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, H. V. Löhneysen, P. Avouris, and R. Krupke, “Light-matter interaction in a microcavity-controlled graphene transistor,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 906 (2012).
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X. Gan, K. F. Mak, Y. Gao, Y. You, F. Hatami, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and D. Englund, “Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5626–5631 (2012).
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C. H. Liu, N. M. Dissanayake, S. Lee, K. Lee, and Z. Zhong, “Evidence for extraction of photoexcited hot carriers from graphene,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7172–7176 (2012).
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J. Yan, M. H. Kim, J. A. Elle, A. B. Sushkov, G. S. Jenkins, H. M. Milchberg, M. S. Fuhrer, and H. D. Drew, “Dual-gated bilayer graphene hot-electron bolometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(7), 472–478 (2012).
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S. Lee, K. Lee, C. H. Liu, and Z. Zhong, “Homogeneous bilayer graphene film based flexible transparent conductor,” Nanoscale 4(2), 639–644 (2012).
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2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332(6035), 1291–1294 (2011).
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2010 (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning power,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20298–20304 (2010).
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X. Xu, N. M. Gabor, J. S. Alden, A. M. van der Zande, and P. L. McEuen, “Photo-thermoelectric effect at a graphene interface junction,” Nano Lett. 10(2), 562–566 (2010).
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2009 (3)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, R. Golizadeh-Mojarad, M. Freitag, Y. M. Lin, J. Tsang, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Photocurrent imaging and efficient photon detection in a graphene transistor,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 1039–1044 (2009).
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J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and C. Ruiz-Vargas, “Imaging of photocurrent generation and collection in single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1742–1746 (2009).
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X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
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Absil, P.

Y. T. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, P. Absil, and D. Van Thourhout, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 307–316 (2016).
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Acín, A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Agarwal, R.

F. Yi, M. Ren, J. C. Reed, H. Zhu, J. Hou, C. H. Naylor, A. T. C. Johnson, R. Agarwal, and E. Cubukcu, “Optomechanical Enhancement of Doubly Resonant 2D Optical Nonlinearity,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1631–1636 (2016).
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Aharonovich, I.

S. Kim, J. E. Fröch, J. Christian, M. Straw, J. Bishop, D. Totonjian, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, M. Toth, and I. Aharonovich, “Photonic crystal cavities from hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2623 (2018).
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J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and C. Ruiz-Vargas, “Imaging of photocurrent generation and collection in single-layer graphene,” Nano Lett. 9(5), 1742–1746 (2009).
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Ajayan, P. M.

C. Qiu, W. Gao, R. Vajtai, P. M. Ajayan, J. Kono, and Q. Xu, “Efficient modulation of 1.55 μm radiation with gated graphene on a silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6811–6815 (2014).
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Akinwande, D.

G. R. Bhimanapati, Z. Lin, V. Meunier, Y. Jung, J. Cha, S. Das, D. Xiao, Y. Son, M. S. Strano, V. R. Cooper, L. Liang, S. G. Louie, E. Ringe, W. Zhou, S. S. Kim, R. R. Naik, B. G. Sumpter, H. Terrones, F. Xia, Y. Wang, J. Zhu, D. Akinwande, N. Alem, J. A. Schuller, R. E. Schaak, M. Terrones, and J. A. Robinson, “Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials beyond Graphene,” ACS Nano 9(12), 11509–11539 (2015).
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A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
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S. Yan, X. Zhu, L. H. Frandsen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, J. Dong, and Y. Ding, “Slow-light-enhanced energy efficiency for graphene microheaters on silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14411 (2017).
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ACS Nano (6)

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D. L. Duong, S. J. Yun, and Y. H. Lee, “van der Waals Layered Materials: Opportunities and Challenges,” ACS Nano 11(12), 11803–11830 (2017).
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L. Yu, J. Zheng, Y. Xu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits,” ACS Nano 8(11), 11386–11393 (2014).
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L. Huang, G. Li, A. Gurarslan, Y. Yu, R. Kirste, W. Guo, J. Zhao, R. Collazo, Z. Sitar, G. N. Parsons, M. Kudenov, and L. Cao, “Atomically Thin MoS2 Narrowband and Broadband Light Superabsorbers,” ACS Nano 10(8), 7493–7499 (2016).
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J. Wong, D. Jariwala, G. Tagliabue, K. Tat, A. R. Davoyan, M. C. Sherrott, and H. A. Atwater, “High Photovoltaic Quantum Efficiency in Ultrathin van der Waals Heterostructures,” ACS Nano 11(7), 7230–7240 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (6)

A. Majumdar, C. M. Dodson, T. K. Fryett, A. Zhan, S. Buckley, and D. Gerace, “Hybrid 2D Material Nanophotonics: A Scalable Platform for Low-Power Nonlinear and Quantum Optics,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1160–1166 (2015).
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D. Schall, D. Neumaier, M. Mohsin, B. Chmielak, J. Bolten, C. Porschatis, A. Prinzen, C. Matheisen, W. Kuebart, B. Junginger, W. Templ, A. L. Giesecke, and H. Kurz, “50 GBit/s Photodetectors Based on Wafer-Scale Graphene for Integrated Silicon Photonic Communication Systems,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 781–784 (2014).
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D. Jariwala, A. R. Davoyan, J. Wong, and H. A. Atwater, “Van der Waals Materials for Atomically-Thin Photovoltaics: Promise and Outlook,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 2962–2970 (2017).
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T. K. Fryett, Y. Y. Chen, J. Whitehead, Z. M. Peycke, X. D. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Encapsulated Silicon Nitride Nanobeam Cavity for Hybrid Nanophotonics,” ACS Photonics 5(6), 2176–2181 (2018).
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H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photonics 3(9), 1564–1568 (2016).
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D. Jariwala, A. R. Davoyan, G. Tagliabue, M. C. Sherrott, J. Wong, and H. A. Atwater, “Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5482–5487 (2016).
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Y. Chen, A. Ryou, M. R. Friedfeld, T. Fryett, J. Whitehead, B. M. Cossairt, and A. Majumdar, “Deterministic Positioning of Colloidal Quantum Dots on Silicon Nitride Nanobeam Cavities,” Nano Lett. 18(10), 6404–6410 (2018).
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C. Javerzac-Galy, A. Kumar, R. D. Schilling, N. Piro, S. Khorasani, M. Barbone, I. Goykhman, J. B. Khurgin, A. C. Ferrari, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Excitonic Emission of Monolayer Semiconductors Near-Field Coupled to High-Q Microresonators,” Nano Lett. 18(5), 3138–3146 (2018).
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O. Salehzadeh, M. Djavid, N. H. Tran, I. Shih, and Z. Mi, “Optically Pumped Two-Dimensional MoS2 Lasers Operating at Room-Temperature,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5302–5306 (2015).
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J. C. Reed, A. Y. Zhu, H. Zhu, F. Yi, and E. Cubukcu, “Wavelength tunable microdisk cavity light source with a chemically enhanced MoS2 emitter,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1967–1971 (2015).
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A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
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C. H. Liu, G. Clark, T. Fryett, S. Wu, J. Zheng, F. Hatami, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Nanocavity Integrated van der Waals Heterostructure Light-Emitting Tunneling Diode,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 200–205 (2017).
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R. J. Shiue, D. K. Efetov, G. Grosso, C. Peng, K. C. Fong, and D. Englund, “Active 2D materials for on-chip nanophotonics and quantum optics,” Nanophotonics 6(6), 1329–1342 (2017).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cavity-enhanced PL of 2D materials. (a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the hybrid monolayer WSe2-PhC nanostructure. (b) Spatial-dependent PL measured from the device shown in (a). (c) Polarization-dependent PL measured from the PhCC area shown in (a). (d-e) Integration of monolayer WSe2 with a high-Q PhCC, and its (d) SEM image, and (e) polarization-dependent PL. The results suggest lasing behavior. (f-h) Other optically-pumped lasers based on (f) Monolayer WS2 laser coupled with a HSQ/ Si3N4 disk resonator, (g) MoS2 flake coupled with a SiO2 disk resonator, and (h) Monolayer MoTe2 coupled with a Si nanobeam. Figures are adapted with permission from: (a-c) [18], Institute of Physics Publishing; (d-e) [31], Nature Publishing Group; (f) [32], American Chemical Society; (g) [33], American Chemical Society; (h) [34], Nature Publishing Group.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Cavity-integrated vdW light emitting diode. (a) Schematic of the device structure. (b) Electroluminescence signal measured from on-cavity and off-cavity areas. (c) Modulation of electroluminescence at 1 MHz speed. Figures are adapted with permission from [40], American Chemical Society.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical modulators based on vdW-integrated nanophotonic structures. (a) Schematic of the first graphene-integrated waveguide-based modulator, its (b) cross sections with an overlay of the mode profile, and the (c) static electro-optical response at different drive voltages. (d) Schematic of a graphene–hBN heterostructure-integrated silicon PhCC modulator. (e) Schematic of a graphene- silicon nitride microring modulator. (f) Optical image of the MZI-based graphene-silicon phase modulators. (g) Schematic of a thermally tunable silicon micro-disk with a transparent graphene nano-heater. (h) Schematic of a slow-light-enhanced graphene heater. (i) Schematic of a graphene-silicon hybrid all-optical modulator. Figures are adapted with permission from: (a-c) [42], Nature Publishing Group; (d) [51], American Chemical Society; (e) [52], Nature Publishing Group; (f) [60], Nature Publishing Group; (g) [66], Optical Society of America; (h) [67]; (i) American Chemical Society.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photodetectors based on vdW-integrated nanophotonic structures. (a-b) Integrating a graphene photodetector with (a) a microcavity and (b) a PhCC to increase the photoresponsivity. (c) SEM of a Si waveguide-integrated graphene photodetector. (d) Broadband photoresponse of the device shown in (c). (e) Schematic of a Si waveguide-integrated BP photodetector, which has the lower dark current compared with graphene-integrated detectors. Figures are adapted with permission from: (a) [88], Nature Publishing Group; (b) [90], American Institute of Physics; (c-d) [92], Nature Publishing Group; (e) [99], Nature Publishing Group.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cavity-integrated nonlinear optics. (a) DBR cavity enhanced MoS2 SHG. (b) SEM image of the fabricated Si PhCC with monolayer WSe2 on top. (c) The SHG spectrum measured from the device shown in (b). (d) Enhanced SHG of MoSe2 using a Si waveguide. (e) SHG of MoS2 enhanced by a double mode DBR cavity. (f-g) Phase-matching nonlinear optics via patterning the 2D material. Figures are adapted with permission from: (a) [109], Optical Society of America; (b-c) [110], Institute of Physics Publishing; (d) [111], Nature Publishing Group; (e) [112], American Chemical Society; (f-g) [113], Optical Society of America.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Nanophotonics based on vdW materials. (a) The structure of microlens made of a MoS2 flake. (b) Intensity distribution at the focal plane of the MoS2 microlens. (c) Schematic of a nanostructured MoS2 grating. (d) Mid-infrared hyperbolic metasurface made of nanostructured hBN. (e) A suspended PhCC made of hBN. (f) Optical image of nanostructured hBN metalenses. (g-h) Intensity profiles of focal spots measured from hBN metalenses shown in (f). Optical imaging using hBN metalenses shown in (f). Figures are adapted with permission from: (a-c) [114], Nature Publishing Group; (d) [115], American Association for the Advancement of Science; (e) [116], Nature Publishing Group; (f-h) [117], American Chemical Society.