Abstract

We report an approach of using an interlayer of single layer graphene (SLG) for electroluminescence (EL) enhancement of an InGaN/GaN-based near-ultraviolet (NUV) light-emitting diode (LED) with an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO)-based current spreading layer (CSL). AZO-based CSLs with and without a SLG interlayer were fabricated on the NUV LED epi-wafers. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic and the EL intensity were measured and compared. We find that the LED without the SLG interlayer can possess a 40% larger series resistance. Furthermore, a 95% EL enhancement was achieved by the employment of the SLG interlayer.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  32. G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khayatian, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmassebi, and A. K. Zak, “Preparation and characterization of Al doped ZnO NPs/graphene nanocomposites synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 110–115 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. C. Lai, C. N. Lin, Y. C. Lai, P. Yu, G. C. Chi, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer,” Opt. Express 22(102), A396–A401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Muztoba and M. Rana, “Rectifying and Schottky characteristics of a-SixGe1− xOy with metal contacts,” Can. J. Phys. 92(7/8), 606–610 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. M. Choi, S. H. Jhi, and Y. W. Son, “Effects of strain on electronic properties of graphene. Physical Review,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081407 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Ni, Y. Wang, T. Yu, and Z. Shen, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene,” Nano Res. 1(4), 273–291 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

J. D. Carey, L. L. Ong, and S. R. P. Silva, “Formation of low-temperature self-organized nanoscale nickel metal islands,” Nanotechnology 14(11), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, Y. C. Lien, and H. W. Lan, “Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni/indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2925–2927 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H. M. Ng, D. Doppalapudi, D. Korakakis, R. Singh, and T. D. Moustakas, “MBE growth and doping of III–V nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 189, 349–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “Thermal stability of W and WSi x contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 942–944 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ai, T.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alexander, N. J.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baik, K. H.

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J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
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C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
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Chang, I. S.

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
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Chang, L. C.

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
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Chang, S. J.

W. C. Lai, C. N. Lin, Y. C. Lai, P. Yu, G. C. Chi, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer,” Opt. Express 22(102), A396–A401 (2014).
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C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. R.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. F.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. C.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. H.

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
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C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
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Chen, S. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. A.

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chi, G. C.

W. C. Lai, C. N. Lin, Y. C. Lai, P. Yu, G. C. Chi, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer,” Opt. Express 22(102), A396–A401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chia, G. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. C.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
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Cho, H. K.

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
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Choi, R. J.

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
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Choi, S. M.

S. M. Choi, S. H. Jhi, and Y. W. Son, “Effects of strain on electronic properties of graphene. Physical Review,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081407 (2010).
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Chrisey, D. B.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
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H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
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Chuang, R. W.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
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A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
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K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
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Eddy, C. R.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
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G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
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Fan, Y. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
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Fei, Y.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
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Feng, X.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Fu, Y. C.

Gao, Z.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
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Geim, A. K.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Gilmore, C. M.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Haldar, P.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. L.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hite, J.

Hite, J. K.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. K.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
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Horng, R. H.

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
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R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, Y. C. Lien, and H. W. Lan, “Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni/indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2925–2927 (2001).
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Horwitz, J. S.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C. K.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. J.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hsueh, T. H.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, C. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. N.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. C.

Hung, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
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H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
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Iwaya, M.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
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Izuno, K.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
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Jang, J. S.

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jhi, S. H.

S. M. Choi, S. H. Jhi, and Y. W. Son, “Effects of strain on electronic properties of graphene. Physical Review,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081407 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, R.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jong, C. S.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Joo, D. H.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kafafi, Z. H.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kai, J. J.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, C. M.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Khayatian, S. A.

S. A. Khayatian, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmassebi, and A. K. Zak, “Preparation and characterization of Al doped ZnO NPs/graphene nanocomposites synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 110–115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. J.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. K.

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. K.

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. Y.

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. P.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kjær, D.

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ko, Y. H.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koh, P. L.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koide, Y.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Koike, M.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kompany, A.

S. A. Khayatian, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmassebi, and A. K. Zak, “Preparation and characterization of Al doped ZnO NPs/graphene nanocomposites synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 110–115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kong, B. H.

B. H. Kong, H. K. Cho, M. Y. Kim, R. J. Choi, and B. K. Kim, “InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes using Al-doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition as a current spreading layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 326(1), 147–151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Korakakis, D.

H. M. Ng, D. Doppalapudi, D. Korakakis, R. Singh, and T. D. Moustakas, “MBE growth and doping of III–V nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 189, 349–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. W.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kushto, G. P.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

P. H. Chen, Y. A. Chen, L. C. Chang, W. C. Lai, and C. H. Kuo, “Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer,” Solid-State Electron. 109, 29–32 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. C. Lai, C. N. Lin, Y. C. Lai, P. Yu, G. C. Chi, and S. J. Chang, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes with graphene/indium tin oxide transparent layer,” Opt. Express 22(102), A396–A401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y. C.

Lan, H. W.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, Y. C. Lien, and H. W. Lan, “Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni/indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2925–2927 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. Y.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, C.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lien, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, Y. C. Lien, and H. W. Lan, “Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni/indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2925–2927 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. F.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. N.

Lin, Y. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. P.

Lo, H. M.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lothian, J. R.

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “Thermal stability of W and WSi x contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 942–944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ma, H.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mastro, M. A.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, M. A. Mastro, J. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Transparent conductive graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23030–23034 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, J. H.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moustakas, T. D.

H. M. Ng, D. Doppalapudi, D. Korakakis, R. Singh, and T. D. Moustakas, “MBE growth and doping of III–V nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 189, 349–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

Murakami, M.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Murata, H.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Murazaki, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muztoba, M.

M. Muztoba and M. Rana, “Rectifying and Schottky characteristics of a-SixGe1− xOy with metal contacts,” Can. J. Phys. 92(7/8), 606–610 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nagai, S.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, D. Doppalapudi, D. Korakakis, R. Singh, and T. D. Moustakas, “MBE growth and doping of III–V nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 189, 349–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Z. Ni, Y. Wang, T. Yu, and Z. Shen, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene,” Nano Res. 1(4), 273–291 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, T. S.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ong, L. L.

J. D. Carey, L. L. Ong, and S. R. P. Silva, “Formation of low-temperature self-organized nanoscale nickel metal islands,” Nanotechnology 14(11), 1223–1227 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ottsen, T. S.

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ou, S. L.

Pan, S. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, A. H.

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “Thermal stability of W and WSi x contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 942–944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pei, Z.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pethuraja, G. G.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pique, A.

H. Kim, A. Pique, J. S. Horwitz, H. Murata, Z. H. Kafafi, C. M. Gilmore, and D. B. Chrisey, “Effect of aluminum doping on zinc oxide thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition for organic light-emitting devices,” Thin Solid Films 377, 798–802 (2000).
[Crossref]

Piqué, A.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pong, B. J.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rana, M.

M. Muztoba and M. Rana, “Rectifying and Schottky characteristics of a-SixGe1− xOy with metal contacts,” Can. J. Phys. 92(7/8), 606–610 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, F.

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “Thermal stability of W and WSi x contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 942–944 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaf, R.

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schou, J.

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Seo, T. H.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seong, T. Y.

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. S. Jang, I. S. Chang, H. K. Kim, T. Y. Seong, S. Lee, and S. J. Park, “Low-resistance Pt/Ni/Au ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 70–72 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shahtahmassebi, N.

S. A. Khayatian, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmassebi, and A. K. Zak, “Preparation and characterization of Al doped ZnO NPs/graphene nanocomposites synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 110–115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shei, S. C.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

Z. Ni, Y. Wang, T. Yu, and Z. Shen, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene,” Nano Res. 1(4), 273–291 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shih, K. K.

J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, C. Y. Chen, and K. K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1275–1277 (1999).
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J. K. Ho, C. S. Jong, C. C. Chiu, C. N. Huang, K. K. Shih, L. C. Chen, F. R. Chen, and J. J. Kai, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4491–4497 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. P.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
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Silva, S. R. P.

J. D. Carey, L. L. Ong, and S. R. P. Silva, “Formation of low-temperature self-organized nanoscale nickel metal islands,” Nanotechnology 14(11), 1223–1227 (2003).
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Singh, R.

H. M. Ng, D. Doppalapudi, D. Korakakis, R. Singh, and T. D. Moustakas, “MBE growth and doping of III–V nitrides,” J. Cryst. Growth 189, 349–353 (1998).
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Son, Y. W.

S. M. Choi, S. H. Jhi, and Y. W. Son, “Effects of strain on electronic properties of graphene. Physical Review,” Phys. Rev. B 81(8), 081407 (2010).
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Song, J. O.

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sood, A. K.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stamate, E.

A. Crovetto, T. S. Ottsen, E. Stamate, D. Kjær, J. Schou, and O. Hansen, “On performance limitations and property correlations of Al-doped ZnO deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(29), 295101 (2016).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, Y. K. Su, G. C. Chi, P. L. Koh, M. J. Jou, C. M. Chang, C. C. Liu, and W. C. Hung, “High-transparency Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(16), 2340–2342 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

J. P. Shim, T. H. Seo, J. H. Min, C. M. Kang, E. K. Suh, and D. S. Lee, “Thin Ni film on graphene current spreading layer for GaN-based blue and ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151115 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. H. Seo, T. S. Oh, S. J. Chae, A. H. Park, K. J. Lee, Y. H. Lee, and E. K. Suh, “Enhanced light output power of GaN light-emitting diodes with graphene film as a transparent conducting electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 125103 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Syväjärvi, M.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
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Takeuchi, T.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J. M.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T. Y.

Y. C. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, T. Y. Tsai, C. S. Chang, S. C. Shei, C. W. Kuo, and S. C. Chen, “InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with Ni/Au, Ni/ITO and ITO p-type contacts,” Solid-State Electron. 47(5), 849–853 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tu, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tun, C. J.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, B. J. Pong, M. L. Lee, M. Y. Lee, C. K. Hsieh, C. C. Hu, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based power LEDs with transparent Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 274–276 (2006).
[Crossref]

Umezaki, J.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, T. Ai, W. Li, R. Jing, Y. Fei, and X. Feng, “Photoelectric and Electrochemical Performance of Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Hydrothermally Grown on Graphene-Coated Polyethylene Terephthalate Bilayer Flexible Substrates,” J. Phys. Chem. C 121(50), 28148–28157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Ni, Y. Wang, T. Yu, and Z. Shen, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene,” Nano Res. 1(4), 273–291 (2008).
[Crossref]

Welser, R. E.

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. W.

C. H. Kuo, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chuang, C. S. Chang, L. W. Wu, W. C. Lai, J. F. Chen, J. K. Sheu, H. M. Lo, and J. M. Tsai, “Nitride-based near-ultraviolet LEDs with an ITO transparent contact,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 106(1), 69–72 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
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R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, Y. C. Lien, and H. W. Lan, “Low-resistance and high-transparency Ni/indium tin oxide ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2925–2927 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, K.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

D. Xu, Z. Deng, Y. Xu, J. Xiao, C. Liang, Z. Pei, and C. Sun, “An anode with aluminum doped on zinc oxide thin films for organic light emitting devices,” Phys. Lett. A 346(1–3), 148–152 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yakimova, R.

S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, I. Akasaki, M. Syväjärvi, and R. Yakimova, “Fluorescent SiC and its application to white light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Semiconductors 32(1), 013004 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

Y. Narukawa, I. Niki, K. Izuno, M. Yamada, Y. Murazaki, and T. Mukai, “Phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode using InGaN near-ultraviolet chip,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(2), L371–L373 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, S.

H. Ishikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Koide, S. Yamasaki, S. Nagai, J. Umezaki, M. Koike, and M. Murakami, “Effects of surface treatments and metal work functions on electrical properties at p-GaN/metal interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(3), 1315–1322 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. L.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chia, “Low operation voltage of nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 11(9), H269–H271 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeh, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and T. J. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium–tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113(2), 125–129 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. S.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Joo, Y. H. Ko, Y. Yeh, Y. P. Kim, and J. S. Yu, “Improved light extraction of GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorods on transparent Ni/Al-doped ZnO current spreading layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(12R), 122102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Yu, T.

Z. Ni, Y. Wang, T. Yu, and Z. Shen, “Raman spectroscopy and imaging of graphene,” Nano Res. 1(4), 273–291 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zak, A. K.

S. A. Khayatian, A. Kompany, N. Shahtahmassebi, and A. K. Zak, “Preparation and characterization of Al doped ZnO NPs/graphene nanocomposites synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method,” Ceram. Int. 42(1), 110–115 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, F.

K. Xu, Y. Xie, H. Ma, Y. Du, F. Zeng, P. Ding, Z. Gao, C. Xu, and J. Sun, “ZnO nanorods/graphene/Ni/Au hybrid structures as transparent conductive layer in GaN LED for low work voltage and high light extraction,” Solid-State Electron. 126, 5–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (1)

G. G. Pethuraja, R. E. Welser, A. K. Sood, C. Lee, N. J. Alexander, H. Efstathiadis, P. Haldar, and J. L. Harvey, “Current-voltage characteristics of ITO/p-Si and ITO/n-Si contact interfaces,” Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry 2(2), 59–62 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

X. A. Cao, S. J. Pearton, F. Ren, and J. R. Lothian, “Thermal stability of W and WSi x contacts on p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), 942–944 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, C. M. Gilmore, J. S. Horwitz, A. Piqué, H. Murata, G. P. Kushto, R. Schlaf, Z. H. Kafafi, and D. B. Chrisey, “Transparent conducting aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films for organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 259–261 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. O. Song, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Highly low resistance and transparent Ni/ZnO ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 479–481 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, Y. Jung, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Large-area transparent conductive few-layer graphene electrode in GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 143101 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Kim, C. Lee, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Buried graphene electrodes on GaN-based ultra-violet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(3), 031108 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the structure of the NUV epi-wafer (left) and the fabricated sample A with the CSL A of SLG/Ni/AZO and the sample B with the CSL B of Ni/AZO (right) both using indium spheres for carrier injection.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical transmittance spectra of a SLG/Ni/AZO CSL (CSL A) and a Ni/AZO CSL (CLS B) on sapphire samples in a wavelength range of 380-430 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Raman spectrum of the transferred SLG on sample A collected using a 633 nm laser with a power of 8 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of sample A during light emission at an injection current of 50 mA; (b) EL spectra of sample A and B at an injection current of 50 mA; (c) Optical reflectance spectra of a SLG/Ni/AZO CSL (CSL A) and a Ni/AZO CSL (CLS B) on sapphire samples in a wavelength range of 370-410 nm. (d) I-V characterization of sample A and B for an input voltage range of 0-10 V.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Work functions of SLG, AZO and Ni (left region) in comparison with that of Au (right region).

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