Abstract

Conventional stereo matching systems generate a depth map using two or more digital imaging sensors. It is difficult to use the small camera system because of their high costs and bulky sizes. In order to solve this problem, this paper presents a stereo matching system using a single image sensor with phase masks for the phase difference auto-focusing. A novel pattern of phase mask array is proposed to simultaneously acquire two pairs of stereo images. Furthermore, a noise-invariant depth map is generated from the raw format sensor output. The proposed method consists of four steps to compute the depth map: (i) acquisition of stereo images using the proposed mask array, (ii) variational segmentation using merging criteria to simplify the input image, (iii) disparity map generation using the hierarchical block matching for disparity measurement, and (iv) image matting to fill holes to generate the dense depth map. The proposed system can be used in small digital cameras without additional lenses or sensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  24. J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.
  25. J. Jang and J. Paik, “Dense depth map generation using a single camera with hybrid auto-focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics Berlin, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 277–278.
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (4)

A. Farooq and C. Won, “A survey of human action recognition approaches that use an RGB-D sensor,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 281–290 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Yoon, K. Choi, M. Ra, and W. Kim, “Real-time full-view 3D human reconstruction using multiple RGB-D cameras,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Optimal PSF selection using second-order frequency analysis for digital autofocusing,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 2, 81–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Kim, and J. Paik, “Sensor-based auto-focusing system using multi-scale feature extraction and phase correlation matching,” Sensors 16, 5747–5762 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Kim, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Real-time digital auto-focusing using prior PSF estimation,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 39–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, A. Roh, C. Eem, and H. Hong, “Using real-time stereo matching for human gesture detection and tracking,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 60–66 (2014).

H. Kim, J. Kang, and B. Song, “Depth-adaptive sharpness adjustments for stereoscopic perception improvement and hardware implementation,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 3, 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation using local depth hypothesis for 2D-to-3D conversion,” International Journal of Computer Graphics & Animation (IJCGA) 3, 1–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, M. H. Hayes, and J. Paik, “Distance estimation using a single computational camera with dual off-axis color filtered apertures,” Opt. Express 21, 23116–23129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Śliwiński and P. Wachel, “A simple model for on-sensor phase-detection autofocusing algorithm,” Journal of Computer and Communication 1, 11–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Kim, E. Lee, M. H. Hayes, and J. Paik, “Multifocusing and depth estimation using a color shift model-based computational camera,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing 21, 4152–4166 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognition 44, 1852–1858 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. He, J. Sun, and X. Tang, “Single image haze removal using dark channel prior,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  33, 2341–2353 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Jeon, J. Lee, and J. Paik, “Robust focus measure for unsupervised auto-focusing based on optimum discrete cosine transform coefficients,” IEEE Trans Consumer Electronics 57, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Denker and G. Umlauf, “Accurate real-time multi-camera stereo matching on the GPU for 3D reconstruction,” Journal of WSCG 19, 9–16 (2011).

2008 (1)

A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “A closed-form solution to natural image matting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 30, 228–242 (2008).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Koepfler, C. Lopez, and J.-M. Morel, “A multiscale algorithm for image segmentation by variational method,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31, 282–299 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. Mumford and J. Shah, “Optimal approximations by piecewise smooth functions and associated variational problems,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 42, 577–685 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Battiato, S.

S. Battiato, S. Curti, M. La Cascia, M. Tortora, and E. Scordato, “Depth map generation by image classification,” in Electronic Imaging 2004, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 95–104.

Chan, S. C.

S. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. C. Chan, “A new high resolution depth map estimation system using stereo vision and depth sensing device,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 49–53.

Choi, C.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Choi, G.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Choi, K.

B. Yoon, K. Choi, M. Ra, and W. Kim, “Real-time full-view 3D human reconstruction using multiple RGB-D cameras,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Choi, Y.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Chung, Y.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Çigla, C.

C. Çıgla, “Recursive edge-aware filters for stereo matching,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 27–34.

Curti, S.

S. Battiato, S. Curti, M. La Cascia, M. Tortora, and E. Scordato, “Depth map generation by image classification,” in Electronic Imaging 2004, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 95–104.

Denker, K.

K. Denker and G. Umlauf, “Accurate real-time multi-camera stereo matching on the GPU for 3D reconstruction,” Journal of WSCG 19, 9–16 (2011).

Eem, C.

S. Kang, A. Roh, C. Eem, and H. Hong, “Using real-time stereo matching for human gesture detection and tracking,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 60–66 (2014).

Evangelidis, G. D.

E. Z. Psarakis and G. D. Evangelidis, “An enhanced correlation-based method for stereo correspondence with subpixel accuracy,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 907–912.

Farooq, A.

A. Farooq and C. Won, “A survey of human action recognition approaches that use an RGB-D sensor,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 281–290 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, R.

R. Fontaine, “Innovative technology elements for large and small pixel CIS devices,” in Proceedings on International Image Sensor Workshop, (IISS, 2013), pp. 1–4.

Gao, Y.

F. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ren, J. Sun, Y. Gao, and W. Liu, “Depth generation method for 2D to 3D conversion,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Guddeti, R. M. R.

S. Mukherjee and R. M. R. Guddeti, “A hybrid algorithm for disparity calculation from sparse disparity estimates based on stereo vision,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–6.

Han, G.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Hayes, M. H.

S. Lee, M. H. Hayes, and J. Paik, “Distance estimation using a single computational camera with dual off-axis color filtered apertures,” Opt. Express 21, 23116–23129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, E. Lee, M. H. Hayes, and J. Paik, “Multifocusing and depth estimation using a color shift model-based computational camera,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing 21, 4152–4166 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, K.

K. He, J. Sun, and X. Tang, “Single image haze removal using dark channel prior,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  33, 2341–2353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hiroshige, G.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Hisanori, I.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Ho, Y.

Y. Kang and Y. Ho, “High-quality multi-view depth generation using multiple color and depth cameras,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1405–1410.

Hong, H.

S. Kang, A. Roh, C. Eem, and H. Hong, “Using real-time stereo matching for human gesture detection and tracking,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 60–66 (2014).

Im, J.

L. Spinoulas, A. Katsaggelos, J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Im, and J. Paik, “Defocus-invariant image registration for phase-difference detection auto focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 83–84.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Jang, D.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Jang, J.

J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Kim, and J. Paik, “Sensor-based auto-focusing system using multi-scale feature extraction and phase correlation matching,” Sensors 16, 5747–5762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Optimal PSF selection using second-order frequency analysis for digital autofocusing,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 2, 81–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Spinoulas, A. Katsaggelos, J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Im, and J. Paik, “Defocus-invariant image registration for phase-difference detection auto focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 83–84.

J. Jang and J. Paik, “Dense depth map generation using a single camera with hybrid auto-focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics Berlin, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 277–278.

Jeon, J.

J. Jeon, J. Lee, and J. Paik, “Robust focus measure for unsupervised auto-focusing based on optimum discrete cosine transform coefficients,” IEEE Trans Consumer Electronics 57, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

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J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Park, H.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Park, J.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Park, R.

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation using local depth hypothesis for 2D-to-3D conversion,” International Journal of Computer Graphics & Animation (IJCGA) 3, 1–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation from a single image using local depth hypothesis,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 311–312.

Park, W.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Psarakis, E. Z.

E. Z. Psarakis and G. D. Evangelidis, “An enhanced correlation-based method for stereo correspondence with subpixel accuracy,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 907–912.

Ra, M.

B. Yoon, K. Choi, M. Ra, and W. Kim, “Real-time full-view 3D human reconstruction using multiple RGB-D cameras,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

F. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ren, J. Sun, Y. Gao, and W. Liu, “Depth generation method for 2D to 3D conversion,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Roh, A.

S. Kang, A. Roh, C. Eem, and H. Hong, “Using real-time stereo matching for human gesture detection and tracking,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 60–66 (2014).

Scordato, E.

S. Battiato, S. Curti, M. La Cascia, M. Tortora, and E. Scordato, “Depth map generation by image classification,” in Electronic Imaging 2004, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 95–104.

Shah, J.

D. Mumford and J. Shah, “Optimal approximations by piecewise smooth functions and associated variational problems,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 42, 577–685 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shin, J.

Y. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Optimal PSF selection using second-order frequency analysis for digital autofocusing,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 2, 81–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Kim, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Real-time digital auto-focusing using prior PSF estimation,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 39–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sim, T.

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognition 44, 1852–1858 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sliwinski, P.

P. Śliwiński and P. Wachel, “A simple model for on-sensor phase-detection autofocusing algorithm,” Journal of Computer and Communication 1, 11–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, B.

H. Kim, J. Kang, and B. Song, “Depth-adaptive sharpness adjustments for stereoscopic perception improvement and hardware implementation,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 3, 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Spinoulas, L.

L. Spinoulas, A. Katsaggelos, J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Im, and J. Paik, “Defocus-invariant image registration for phase-difference detection auto focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 83–84.

Sun, J.

K. He, J. Sun, and X. Tang, “Single image haze removal using dark channel prior,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  33, 2341–2353 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ren, J. Sun, Y. Gao, and W. Liu, “Depth generation method for 2D to 3D conversion,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Tang, X.

K. He, J. Sun, and X. Tang, “Single image haze removal using dark channel prior,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  33, 2341–2353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tortora, M.

S. Battiato, S. Curti, M. La Cascia, M. Tortora, and E. Scordato, “Depth map generation by image classification,” in Electronic Imaging 2004, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 95–104.

Umlauf, G.

K. Denker and G. Umlauf, “Accurate real-time multi-camera stereo matching on the GPU for 3D reconstruction,” Journal of WSCG 19, 9–16 (2011).

Wachel, P.

P. Śliwiński and P. Wachel, “A simple model for on-sensor phase-detection autofocusing algorithm,” Journal of Computer and Communication 1, 11–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

S. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. C. Chan, “A new high resolution depth map estimation system using stereo vision and depth sensing device,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 49–53.

Weiss, Y.

A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “A closed-form solution to natural image matting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 30, 228–242 (2008).
[Crossref]

Won, C.

A. Farooq and C. Won, “A survey of human action recognition approaches that use an RGB-D sensor,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 281–290 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, N.

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation using local depth hypothesis for 2D-to-3D conversion,” International Journal of Computer Graphics & Animation (IJCGA) 3, 1–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation from a single image using local depth hypothesis,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 311–312.

Yim, B.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

Yoo, Y.

J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Kim, and J. Paik, “Sensor-based auto-focusing system using multi-scale feature extraction and phase correlation matching,” Sensors 16, 5747–5762 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Optimal PSF selection using second-order frequency analysis for digital autofocusing,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 2, 81–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Spinoulas, A. Katsaggelos, J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Im, and J. Paik, “Defocus-invariant image registration for phase-difference detection auto focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 83–84.

Yoon, B.

B. Yoon, K. Choi, M. Ra, and W. Kim, “Real-time full-view 3D human reconstruction using multiple RGB-D cameras,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.

F. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ren, J. Sun, Y. Gao, and W. Liu, “Depth generation method for 2D to 3D conversion,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. C. Chan, “A new high resolution depth map estimation system using stereo vision and depth sensing device,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 49–53.

Zhuo, S.

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognition 44, 1852–1858 (2011).
[Crossref]

Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics (1)

D. Mumford and J. Shah, “Optimal approximations by piecewise smooth functions and associated variational problems,” Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics 42, 577–685 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans Consumer Electronics (1)

J. Jeon, J. Lee, and J. Paik, “Robust focus measure for unsupervised auto-focusing based on optimum discrete cosine transform coefficients,” IEEE Trans Consumer Electronics 57, 1–5 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Image Processing (1)

S. Kim, E. Lee, M. H. Hayes, and J. Paik, “Multifocusing and depth estimation using a color shift model-based computational camera,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing 21, 4152–4166 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (1)

A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “A closed-form solution to natural image matting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 30, 228–242 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing (3)

A. Farooq and C. Won, “A survey of human action recognition approaches that use an RGB-D sensor,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 281–290 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, J. Kang, and B. Song, “Depth-adaptive sharpness adjustments for stereoscopic perception improvement and hardware implementation,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 3, 110–117 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Yoon, K. Choi, M. Ra, and W. Kim, “Real-time full-view 3D human reconstruction using multiple RGB-D cameras,” IEIE Trans. Smart Processing and Computing 4, 224–230 (2015).
[Crossref]

International Journal of Computer Graphics & Animation (IJCGA) (1)

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation using local depth hypothesis for 2D-to-3D conversion,” International Journal of Computer Graphics & Animation (IJCGA) 3, 1–15 (2013).
[Crossref]

Journal of Computer and Communication (1)

P. Śliwiński and P. Wachel, “A simple model for on-sensor phase-detection autofocusing algorithm,” Journal of Computer and Communication 1, 11–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Journal of WSCG (1)

K. Denker and G. Umlauf, “Accurate real-time multi-camera stereo matching on the GPU for 3D reconstruction,” Journal of WSCG 19, 9–16 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions (1)

K. He, J. Sun, and X. Tang, “Single image haze removal using dark channel prior,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  33, 2341–2353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pattern Recognition (1)

S. Zhuo and T. Sim, “Defocus map estimation from a single image,” Pattern Recognition 44, 1852–1858 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Kim, and J. Paik, “Sensor-based auto-focusing system using multi-scale feature extraction and phase correlation matching,” Sensors 16, 5747–5762 (2015).
[Crossref]

SIAM J. Numer. Anal. (1)

G. Koepfler, C. Lopez, and J.-M. Morel, “A multiscale algorithm for image segmentation by variational method,” SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 31, 282–299 (1994).
[Crossref]

TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science (3)

Y. Yoo, J. Jang, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Optimal PSF selection using second-order frequency analysis for digital autofocusing,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 2, 81–86 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Kim, J. Shin, and J. Paik, “Real-time digital auto-focusing using prior PSF estimation,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 39–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kang, A. Roh, C. Eem, and H. Hong, “Using real-time stereo matching for human gesture detection and tracking,” TechArt: Journal of Arts and Imaging Science 1, 60–66 (2014).

Other (13)

S. Battiato, S. Curti, M. La Cascia, M. Tortora, and E. Scordato, “Depth map generation by image classification,” in Electronic Imaging 2004, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 95–104.

F. Yu, J. Liu, Y. Ren, J. Sun, Y. Gao, and W. Liu, “Depth generation method for 2D to 3D conversion,” in 3DTV Conference: The True Vision-Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–4.

L. Spinoulas, A. Katsaggelos, J. Jang, Y. Yoo, J. Im, and J. Paik, “Defocus-invariant image registration for phase-difference detection auto focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 83–84.

N. Yang, J. Lee, and R. Park, “Depth map generation from a single image using local depth hypothesis,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics, (IEEE, 2012), pp. 311–312.

S. Zhang, C. Wang, and S. C. Chan, “A new high resolution depth map estimation system using stereo vision and depth sensing device,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and its Applications (CSPA), (IEEE, 2013), pp. 49–53.

Y. Kang and Y. Ho, “High-quality multi-view depth generation using multiple color and depth cameras,” in Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1405–1410.

R. Butler, “Exclusive: Fujifilm’s phase detection system explained,” http://www.dpreview.com/articles/2151234617/fujifilmpd .

R. Fontaine, “Innovative technology elements for large and small pixel CIS devices,” in Proceedings on International Image Sensor Workshop, (IISS, 2013), pp. 1–4.

J. Ahn, K. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jeong, B. Kim, H. Kim, J. Park, T. Jung, W. Park, T. Lee, E. Park, S. Choi, G. Choi, H. Park, Y. Choi, S. Lee, Y. Kim, Y. J. Jung, D. Park, S. Nah, Y. Oh, M. Kim, Y. Lee, Y. Chung, I. Hisanori, J. Im, D. K. Lee, B. Yim, G. Lee, H. Kown, S. Choi, J. Lee, D. Jang, Y. Kim, T. Kim, G. Hiroshige, C. Choi, D. Lee, and G. Han, “7.1 A 1/4-inch 8Mpixel CMOS image sensor with 3D backside-illuminated 1.12µ m pixel with front-side deep-trench isolation and vertical transfer gate,” in Proceedings on IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 124–125.

J. Jang and J. Paik, “Dense depth map generation using a single camera with hybrid auto-focusing,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics Berlin, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 277–278.

S. Mukherjee and R. M. R. Guddeti, “A hybrid algorithm for disparity calculation from sparse disparity estimates based on stereo vision,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications (SPCOM), (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–6.

E. Z. Psarakis and G. D. Evangelidis, “An enhanced correlation-based method for stereo correspondence with subpixel accuracy,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, (IEEE, 2005), pp. 907–912.

C. Çıgla, “Recursive edge-aware filters for stereo matching,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, (IEEE, 2015), pp. 27–34.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Various imaging sensors. (a) an array of pixels with the black masks; (b) dual-pixel CMOS sensor; and (c) dual-pixel sensor with a barrier.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The sensor-based PDAF system. (a) the sensor array with the black masks, (b) the phase difference of each object that has a different distance from the camera, and (c) a process of sub-pixel disparity generation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Block diagram of the proposed dense depth map generation system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Disparity map generation using the dual pixel-type imaging sensor as shown in Fig. 2(a). (a) the disparity map and (b) mis-measured horizontal disparities.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The proposed sensor array to generate the dense depth map.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Segmentation Result of the proposed segmentation method. (a) an input image, (b) the edge image of (a), (c) segmentation result without (b), and (d) segmentation result with (b).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 A prototype camera to acquire four stereo images. (a) a setup to acquire the horizontal disparity and (b) the 90° rotated version to acquire the vertical disparity.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Acquired four stereo images using the proposed sensor array. (a) left image, (b) right image, (c) top image, (d) bottom image, and (e) the disparity measurement results of (a)–(d).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Segmentation results of Fig. 8(a) using different algorithms. (a) k-means clustering, (b) mean-shift, (c) variational method by Koepfler [27], and (d) the proposed segmentation method.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Results of dense depth map generation: (a) depth map using defocus map [14], (b) region-based stereo matching [29], (c) normalized cross correlation [30], (d) recursive edge-aware filters [31], (e) hierarchical phase correlation [25], and (f) the proposed system.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Depth map generation results of various input images: (a) results of ’Desk’, (b) ’Hallway’, and (c) ’Chair’.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( x , y ) = g L ( x , y ) + g R ( x , y ) ,
g L ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) * h L ( x , y ) + η ( x , y ) g R ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) * h R ( x , y ) + η ( x , y ) ,
g ( x , y ) = g L ( x , y ) + g R ( x , y ) + g T ( x , y ) + g B ( x , y ) ,
g T ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) * h T ( x , y ) + η ( x , y ) g B ( x , y ) = f ( x , y ) * h B ( x , y ) + η ( x , y ) ,
E ( g s ( x ) , L ) = min [ i Ω { g s i ( x ) g L ( x ) } 2 d x + ν B ] ,
g s i ( x ) = Ω i g L ( x ) d x Ω i d x ,
0 E ( g s ( x ) , B ) E ( g s ( x ) , B ) min ( A i , A j ) × [ sup { g L ( x ) } inf { g L ( x ) } ] 2 ν ( A i , A j ) ,
E ( g s ( x ) , B ) E ( g s ( x ) , B ) = A i A j A i + A j | A i g s ( x ) A j g s ( x ) | ν ( A i , A j ) .
Δ x = arg min x [ x y | g r o i L ( x + x , y ) g r o i R ( x , y ) | ] ,
Δ y = arg min y [ x y | g r o i T ( x , y + y ) g r o i B ( x , y ) | ] ,
d E ( x , y ) = d Δ x ( x , y ) + d Δ y ( x , y ) ,
( L + α D E ) D = ( α D E D D ) ,

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