Abstract

A cost-effective structure is proposed for the optical network unit (ONU) transceivers in coherent ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (UDWDM-PON), which is based on a single directly modulated laser (DML). This is the first time that a DML is used as both optical transmitter in upstream and local oscillator (LO) for coherent detection in downstream. The impact of extinction ratio (ER) of signal from DML is investigated and optimized by adapting the driving amplitude and bias of DML. Each UDWDM grid accommodates a pair of bi-directional signal, where heterodyne detection is used due to the Rayleigh backscattering (RB) from the bi-directional transmission. The impact of frequency offset (FO) between upstream and downstream signal is also investigated. Finally, 2.5-Gb/s bi-directional transmission of OOK signal over 60-km SSMF is experimentally demonstrated within the 12.5-GHz grid, achieving about −43 and −45.5 dBm receiver sensitivity in the downstream and upstream, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  12. M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Low cost 6.25 GHz UDWDM PON based on directly modulated DFBs,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2015), paper Th3I.1.
  13. I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
    [Crossref]
  15. J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Dong, C. Xie, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic polarization diversity coherent receiver based on 120-degree optical hybrids on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2119–2125 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

2014 (2)

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, C. Xie, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic polarization diversity coherent receiver based on 120-degree optical hybrids on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2119–2125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baeyens, Y.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Barros, D. J.

Bayvel, P.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, C. Xie, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic polarization diversity coherent receiver based on 120-degree optical hybrids on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2119–2125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Cano, I.

I. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. ECOC'13 (2013), paper. We.2.F.4.

Cano, I. N.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, N.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Low cost 6.25 GHz UDWDM PON based on directly modulated DFBs,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2015), paper Th3I.1.

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Experimental demonstration of a novel polarization-independent coherent receiver for PONs,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper W4G.3.
[Crossref]

Corsini, R.

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Experimental demonstration of a novel polarization-independent coherent receiver for PONs,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper W4G.3.
[Crossref]

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Low cost 6.25 GHz UDWDM PON based on directly modulated DFBs,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2015), paper Th3I.1.

Cvijetic, M.

Cvijetic, N.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, C. Xie, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic polarization diversity coherent receiver based on 120-degree optical hybrids on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2119–2125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Gnauck, A.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Gottwald, E.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, S. Wey, and E. Gottwald, “Coherent Optical Access Networks,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuB1.
[Crossref]

Gréus, C.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Huang, M. F.

Huang, Y. K.

Ip, E.

Jensen, J. B.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lavery, D.

Lerín, A.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. ECOC'13 (2013), paper. We.2.F.4.

Li, H.

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Lima, M. J.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Luo, M.

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Maher, R.

Millar, D. S.

Monroy, I. T.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
[Crossref]

Muller, M.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Neumeyr, C.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Neves, D. M.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Ortsiefer, M.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Polo, V.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. ECOC'13 (2013), paper. We.2.F.4.

Poustie, A.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

Prat, J.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. ECOC'13 (2013), paper. We.2.F.4.

Presi, M.

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Experimental demonstration of a novel polarization-independent coherent receiver for PONs,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper W4G.3.
[Crossref]

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Low cost 6.25 GHz UDWDM PON based on directly modulated DFBs,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2015), paper Th3I.1.

Reis, J. D.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Rodes, R.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
[Crossref]

Rohde, H.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, S. Wey, and E. Gottwald, “Coherent Optical Access Networks,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuB1.
[Crossref]

Savory, S. J.

Sethumadhavan, C.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

Shahpari, A.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Shao, Y.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Smith, D.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

Smolorz, S.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, S. Wey, and E. Gottwald, “Coherent Optical Access Networks,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuB1.
[Crossref]

Spiga, S.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Teixeira, A. L.

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

Thomsen, B. C.

Wang, T.

Wey, S.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, S. Wey, and E. Gottwald, “Coherent Optical Access Networks,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuB1.
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Wong, E.

Xiao, X.

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

P. Dong, C. Xie, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic polarization diversity coherent receiver based on 120-degree optical hybrids on silicon,” Opt. Express 22(2), 2119–2125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

I. N. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(10), 973–975 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (4)

Other (10)

C. Xie, S. Spiga, P. Dong, P. J. Winzer, A. Gnauck, C. Gréus, C. Neumeyr, M. Ortsiefer, M. Muller, and M. Amann, “Generation and transmission of 100-Gb/s PDM 4-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th3K.2.
[Crossref]

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, N. Cheng, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSELs for coherent PON,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2014), paper Th3I.6.
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, X. Xiao, X. Xiao, H. Li, and W. Shieh, “A cost-effective 2.5 Gb/s/λ bi-directional coherent UDWDM-PON with computationally-efficient DSP,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper Th.2.6.4.
[Crossref]

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Poustie, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper PDPD4.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, S. Wey, and E. Gottwald, “Coherent Optical Access Networks,” in Proc. OFC’11 (2011), paper OTuB1.
[Crossref]

A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, R. Ferreira, D. M. Neves, M. J. Lima, and A. L. Teixeira, “Terabit+ (192 x 10 Gb/s) Nyquist shaped UDWDM coherent PON with upstream and downstream over a 12.8 nm band,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5B.3.

P. Dong, X. Liu, C. Sethumadhavan, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, and Y. Baeyens, “224-Gb/s PDM-16-QAM modulator and receiver based on silicon photonic integrated circuits,” in Proc. OFC’13 (2013), paper PDP5C.6.

I. Cano, A. Lerín, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. ECOC'13 (2013), paper. We.2.F.4.

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Experimental demonstration of a novel polarization-independent coherent receiver for PONs,” in Proc. OFC'14 (2014), paper W4G.3.
[Crossref]

M. Presi, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “Low cost 6.25 GHz UDWDM PON based on directly modulated DFBs,” in Proc. OFC’15 (2015), paper Th3I.1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Proposed coherent ONU structure based on a common DML for both upstream and downstream; (b) the block diagram of digital signal processing for the proposed method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Spectral scheduling for ONU (left), eye diagram with and without ER optimization (right); (b) spectral scheduling for OLT (left), received eye diagram with and without a LPF (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup for the 2.5-Gb/s/λ bi-directional transmission based on the proposed method, (a) received upstream spectral, and (b) downstream spectral with RB interference. RB: Rayleigh backscattering.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured downstream receiver sensitivity under four different sets of parameters for the DML: a) CW mode, bias = 900mA; b) vpp = 0.5V, bias = 900mA; c) vpp = 1.0V, bias = 900mA; and d) vpp = 1.0V, bias = 600mA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured upstream receiver sensitivity under three different sets of parameters for the DML: a) vpp = 0.5V, bias = 900mA; b) vpp = 1.0V, bias = 900mA; and c) vpp = 1.0V, bias = 600mA.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured output spectral of DML for 2.5-Gb/s OOK signal at 0.5 and 1.0-V vpp, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured curve of BER versus FO in downstream direction, when channel spacing is 12.5 GHz and driving amplitude is 0.5 V.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured curve of BER versus FO in the upstream direction, with the same 12.5-GHz channel spacing and 0.5-V vpp for DML.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Receiver sensitivity of both upstream (US) and downstream (DS) channels in the bi-directional transmissions.

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