Abstract

The concept of a multi-wavelength quantum cascade laser emitting at two or more spectrally well-separated wavelengths is highly appealing for applied spectroscopy, as it allows detecting several species with compact and cost-efficient optical setups. Here we present a practical realization of such a dual-wavelength setup, which is based on a room-temperature quantum cascade laser emitting single-mode at 1600 cm−1 and 1900 cm−1 and is thus well-suited for simultaneous NO and NO2 detection. Operated in a time-division multiplexed mode, our spectrometer reaches detection limits of 0.5 and 1.5 ppb for NO2 and NO, respectively. The performance of the system is validated against the well-established chemiluminescence detection while measuring the NOx emissions on an automotive test-bench, as well as upon monitoring the pollution at a suburban site.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Jágerská, P. Jouy, A. Hugi, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, M. Mangold, M. Beck, L. Emmenegger, and J. Faist, “Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.105, 161109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.6, 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.19, 1200210 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nature Photon.6, 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nature Photon.6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Hübner, S. Welzel, D. Marinov, O. Guaitella, S. Glitsch, A. Rousseau, and J. Röpcke, “TRIPLE Q: A three channel quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer for fast multiple species concentration measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng.49, 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49, 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487, 1–18 (2010).

R. Terazzi and J. Faist, “A density matrix model of transport and radiation in quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys.12, 033045 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: Breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors9, 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. Zeeman, R. Werner, W. Eugster, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, J. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parrish, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron.38, 569–581 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Straub, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, “Simultaneously at two wavelengths (5.0 and 7.5 μm) singlemode and tunable quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Electron. Lett.38, 565–567 (2002).

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature415, 883–887 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, and M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75, 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A multiwavelength semiconductor laser,” Nature396, 350–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct.17, 77–83 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.19, 1200210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, R. L.

Augst, S. J.

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baren, R. E.

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parrish, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

J. Jágerská, P. Jouy, A. Hugi, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, M. Mangold, M. Beck, L. Emmenegger, and J. Faist, “Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.105, 161109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W.

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.19, 1200210 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blumberg, K.

S. Chambliss, J. Miller, C. Faanha, R. Minjares, and K. Blumberg, “The impact of stringent fuel and vehicle standards on premature mortality and emissions,” Tech. rep., International Council on Clean Transportation (2013).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Canedy, C.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Villares, G.

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.19, 1200210 (2013).
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Wagli, P.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wag-ner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: Breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors9, 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wehr, R.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49, 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Welzel, S.

M. Hübner, S. Welzel, D. Marinov, O. Guaitella, S. Glitsch, A. Rousseau, and J. Röpcke, “TRIPLE Q: A three channel quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer for fast multiple species concentration measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
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Werner, R.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. Zeeman, R. Werner, W. Eugster, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, J. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wirthmueller, A.

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wood, E.

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49, 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487, 1–18 (2010).

Yang, R. Q.

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct.17, 77–83 (1995).
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Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nature Photon.6, 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. Zeeman, R. Werner, W. Eugster, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, J. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, and M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75, 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zahniser, M. S.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.6, 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49, 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parrish, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zeeman, M.

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. Zeeman, R. Werner, W. Eugster, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, J. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zeyer, K.

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.6, 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Analyst (1)

P. Jouy, M. Mangold, B. Tuzson, L. Emmenegger, Y.-C. Chang, L. Hvozdara, H. P. Herzig, P. Wagli, A. Homsy, N. F. de Rooij, A. Wirthmueller, D. Hofstetter, H. Looser, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for gases and liquids based on quantum cascade technologies,” Analyst139, 2039–2046 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

B. Tuzson, J. Mohn, M. Zeeman, R. Werner, W. Eugster, M. Zahniser, D. Nelson, J. McManus, and L. Emmenegger, “High precision and continuous field measurements of δ13C and δ18O in carbon dioxide with a cryogen-free QCLAS,” Appl. Phys. B92, 451–458 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Nelson, J. Shorter, J. McManus, and M. Zahniser, “Sub-part-per-billion detection of nitric oxide in air using a thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade laser spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. B75, 343–350 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B57, 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Jágerská, P. Jouy, A. Hugi, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, M. Mangold, M. Beck, L. Emmenegger, and J. Faist, “Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.105, 161109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, “Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech.6, 927–936 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. F. Curl, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. A. Kosterev, B. McManus, R. Lewicki, M. Pusharsky, G. Wysocki, and F. K. Tittel, “Quantum cascade lasers in chemical physics,” Chem. Phys. Lett.487, 1–18 (2010).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Straub, C. Gmachl, D. Sivco, A. Sergent, F. Capasso, and A. Cho, “Simultaneously at two wavelengths (5.0 and 7.5 μm) singlemode and tunable quantum cascade distributed feedback lasers,” Electron. Lett.38, 565–567 (2002).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

C. Gmachl, A. Straub, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Sergent, and A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode, tunable distributed-feedback and multiple-wavelength quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron.38, 569–581 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with low threshold powers and high output powers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.19, 1200210 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. Mller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wag-ner, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer110, 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

A. Tredicucci, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “A multiwavelength semiconductor laser,” Nature396, 350–353 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature415, 883–887 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (2)

A. Schliesser, N. Picque, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nature Photon.6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, A. J. Hoffman, and C. F. Gmachl, “Mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Nature Photon.6, 432–439 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

R. Terazzi and J. Faist, “A density matrix model of transport and radiation in quantum cascade lasers,” New J. Phys.12, 033045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, J. H. Shorter, S. Herndon, E. Wood, and R. Wehr, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to high-precision atmospheric trace gas measurements,” Opt. Eng.49, 111124 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng.49, 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Hübner, S. Welzel, D. Marinov, O. Guaitella, S. Glitsch, A. Rousseau, and J. Röpcke, “TRIPLE Q: A three channel quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer for fast multiple species concentration measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.82, 093102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science264, 553–556 (1994).
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Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.25, 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sensors (1)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: Breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors9, 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

R. E. Baren, M. E. Parrish, K. H. Shafer, C. N. Harward, Q. Shi, D. D. Nelson, J. McManus, and M. S. Zahniser, “Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke,” Spectrochim. Acta, Part A60, 3437–3447 (2004).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct.17, 77–83 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Faist, Quantum Cascade Lasers (Oxford University, 2013).

Daylight Solutions Inc., TLS-41000-MHF Specifications Sheet (2012).

S. Chambliss, J. Miller, C. Faanha, R. Minjares, and K. Blumberg, “The impact of stringent fuel and vehicle standards on premature mortality and emissions,” Tech. rep., International Council on Clean Transportation (2013).

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