Abstract

We introduce the concept of dual-illuminated photodetectors for high-power applications. Illuminating the photodetector on both sides doubles the number of optical channels, boosting DC and RF power handling capability. This concept is demonstrated utilizing multiple-stage dual-illuminated traveling wave photodetector circuits in silicon photonics, showing a maximum DC photocurrent of 112 mA and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 GHz at 0.3 mA. Peak continuous-wave RF power is generated up to 12.3 dBm at 2 GHz and 5.3 dBm at 40 GHz, at a DC photocurrent of 55 mA. High speed broadband data signals are detected with eye amplitudes of 2.2 V and 1.3 V at 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s, respectively. A theoretical analysis is presented illustrating design tradeoffs for the multiple-stage photodetector circuits based on the bandwidth and power requirements.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

2013 (5)

2012 (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

A. Ramaswamy, M. Piels, N. Nunoya, T. Yin, and J. E. Bowers, “High power silicon-germanium photodiodes for microwave photonic applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3336–3343 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. Beling, H. Chen, H. Pan, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power monolithically integrated traveling wave photodiode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1813–1815 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs–InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation power,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

V. M. Hietala, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Traveling-wave photodetectors for high-power, large-bandwidth applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2291–2298 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Ang, K. W.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bach, H.-G.

Baynes, F. N.

Beling, A.

Bowers, J. E.

Brennan, T. M.

V. M. Hietala, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Traveling-wave photodetectors for high-power, large-bandwidth applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2291–2298 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bucholtz, F.

Campbell, J.

Campbell, J. C.

Campillo, A. L.

Capmany, J.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-M.

C.-M. Chang and O. Solgaard, “Silicon buried gratings for dielectric laser electron accelerators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 184102 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-M. Chang and O. Solgaard, “Fano resonances in integrated silicon Bragg reflectors for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27209–27218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K.

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Chen, H.

A. Beling, H. Chen, H. Pan, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power monolithically integrated traveling wave photodiode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1813–1815 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs–InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation power,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. N.

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Cross, A. S.

Dagenais, M.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

De Leonardis, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Tullio, C.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devgan, P. S.

Dexter, J. L.

Diddams, S. A.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, G.-H.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, N.

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs–InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation power,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eknoyan, O.

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Esman, R. D.

K. J. Williams and R. D. Esman, “Design considerations for high-current photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(8), 1443–1454 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, and M. Dagenais, “Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 84–96 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fang, Q.

X. Luo, J. Song, X. Tu, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y. Huang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based traveling-wave photodetector array (Si-TWPDA) with parallel optical feeding,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20020–20026 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

Fu, Y.

Giannoccaro, G.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hammons, B. E.

V. M. Hietala, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Traveling-wave photodetectors for high-power, large-bandwidth applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2291–2298 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hati, A.

Heideman, R.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hietala, V. M.

V. M. Hietala, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Traveling-wave photodetectors for high-power, large-bandwidth applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2291–2298 (1995).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Itoh, T.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jia, L.

Kwong, D. L.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

La Notte, M.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leinse, A.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

Lin, L. Y.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

Lo, G. Q.

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, X.

Marpaung, D.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKinney, J. D.

Mekonnen, G. G.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muller, R. E.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Neilson, D. T.

P. Dong, Y.-K. Chen, G.-H. Duan, and D. T. Neilson, “Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits,” Nanophotonics 3(4-5), 215–228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nelson, C.

Nunoya, N.

A. Ramaswamy, M. Piels, N. Nunoya, T. Yin, and J. E. Bowers, “High power silicon-germanium photodiodes for microwave photonic applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3336–3343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

A. Beling, H. Chen, H. Pan, and J. C. Campbell, “High-power monolithically integrated traveling wave photodiode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(24), 1813–1815 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, C. S.

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peters, J.

Piels, M.

Quinlan, F.

Ramaswamy, A.

M. Piels, A. Ramaswamy, and J. E. Bowers, “Nonlinear modeling of waveguide photodetectors,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15634–15644 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ramaswamy, M. Piels, N. Nunoya, T. Yin, and J. E. Bowers, “High power silicon-germanium photodiodes for microwave photonic applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3336–3343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Roeloffzen, C.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rouvalis, E.

Sales, S.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, D.

Sivco, D. L.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

C.-M. Chang and O. Solgaard, “Silicon buried gratings for dielectric laser electron accelerators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(18), 184102 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-M. Chang and O. Solgaard, “Fano resonances in integrated silicon Bragg reflectors for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27209–27218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

X. Luo, J. Song, X. Tu, Q. Fang, L. Jia, Y. Huang, T.-Y. Liow, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Silicon-based traveling-wave photodetector array (Si-TWPDA) with parallel optical feeding,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20020–20026 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. Liow, K. W. Ang, Q. Fang, J. Song, Y. Xiong, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Steffan, A. G.

Taylor, H. F.

H. F. Taylor, O. Eknoyan, C. S. Park, K. N. Choi, and K. Chang, “Traveling wave photodetectors,” Proc. SPIE 1217, 59–63 (1990).

Taylor, J. A.

Troia, B.

V. M. N. Passaro, C. de Tullio, B. Troia, M. La Notte, G. Giannoccaro, and F. De Leonardis, “Recent advances in integrated photonic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(11), 15558–15598 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Urick, V. J.

Vang, T. A.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vawter, G. A.

V. M. Hietala, G. A. Vawter, T. M. Brennan, and B. E. Hammons, “Traveling-wave photodetectors for high-power, large-bandwidth applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2291–2298 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, N. Duan, H. Chen, and J. C. Campbell, “InGaAs–InP photodiodes with high responsivity and high saturation power,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(16), 1272–1274 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

Wu, M. C.

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power high-speed photodetectors – design, analysis, and experimental demonstration,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1320–1331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

Xiong, Y.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Circuit architecture of the n-stage dual-illuminated traveling wave photodetectors.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DC photocurrent as a function of input optical power at the device, (a) Comparison of three different configurations at −3 V, (b) Four-stage dual-illuminated traveling wave photodetector.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 E/E S-parameters measurement and ADS modeling of the 4-stage and 8-stage TWPDs, (a) Magnitude of S11 at −3 V, (b) Magnitude of S21 at −3 V.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized O/E frequency responses of the 4-stage and 8-stage TWPDs at −3V using (a) Lightwave component analyzer, (b) Optical heterodyne setup.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 RF power handling capability of the (a) 4-stage and (b) 8-stage TWPDs at −3V. RF compression at different frequencies for the (c) 4-stage and (d) 8-stage TWPDs at −3V.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Data measurements for the 4-stage and 8-stage TWPDs at −3V.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Simulated RF loss per unit length for the TWPDs. The lossy PD model is shown in the inset, (b) Simulated E/E S21 for the 4-stage, 8-stage, 16-stage and 32-stage TWPDs.

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