Abstract

Oxide-free bonding of a III-V active stack emitting at 1300-1600 nm to a silicon-on-insulator wafer offers the capability to electrically inject lasers from the silicon side. However, a typical 500-nm-thick silicon layer notably attracts the fundamental guided mode of the silicon + III-V stack, a detrimental feature compared to established III-V Separate-Confinement Heterostructure (SCH) stacks. We experimentally probe with photoluminescence as an internal light source the guiding behavior for oxide-free bonding to a nanopatterned silicon wafer that acts as a low-index barrier. We use a sub-wavelength square array of small holes as an effective “low-index silicon” medium. It is weakly modulated along one dimension (superperiodic array) to outcouple the resulting guided modes to free space, where we use an angle-resolved spectroscopy study. Analysis of experimental branches confirms the capability to operate with a fundamental mode well localized in the III-V heterostructures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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  4. I. Bakish, V. Artel, T. Ilovitsh, M. Shubely, Y. Ben-Ezra, A. Zadok, and C. N. Sukenik, “Self-assembled monolayer assisted bonding of Si and InP,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1141–1148 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci Rep 2, 349 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces,” Opt. Express 20(26), B315–B321 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).
  8. K. Pantzas, A. Itawi, L. Couraud, J. C. Esnault, and E. Le Bourhis, “Electrical transport across the heterointerface of InP membranes bonded oxide-free on Si”, paper TuD2–3, 26th International Conference on InP and Related Materials (IPRM 2014), Montpellier, May 11–15th, 2014.
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    [Crossref]
  10. A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Pang, H. Benisty, B. Mondher, A. Talneau, and X. Pommarede, “Oxide-free InP-on-Silicon-on-Insulator nanopatterned waveguides: propagation losses assessment through end-fire and internal probe measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(6), 1048–1053 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Pang and H. Benisty, “Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 11(2), 145–156 (2013).
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    [Crossref]
  14. M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. O. Khayam and H. Benisty, “General recipe for flatbands in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14634–14648 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, H. Benisty, B. Mondher, A. Talneau, and X. Pommarede, “Oxide-free InP-on-Silicon-on-Insulator nanopatterned waveguides: propagation losses assessment through end-fire and internal probe measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(6), 1048–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

C. Pang and H. Benisty, “Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 11(2), 145–156 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

2012 (5)

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci Rep 2, 349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Bakish, V. Artel, T. Ilovitsh, M. Shubely, Y. Ben-Ezra, A. Zadok, and C. N. Sukenik, “Self-assembled monolayer assisted bonding of Si and InP,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1141–1148 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers on Si rib structures with current injection across direct-bonded GaAs/Si heterointerfaces,” Opt. Express 20(26), B315–B321 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

Artel, V.

Babic, D. I.

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bakish, I.

Beaudoin, G. S.

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Ben-Ezra, Y.

Benisty, H.

C. Pang, H. Benisty, B. Mondher, A. Talneau, and X. Pommarede, “Oxide-free InP-on-Silicon-on-Insulator nanopatterned waveguides: propagation losses assessment through end-fire and internal probe measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(6), 1048–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

C. Pang and H. Benisty, “Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 11(2), 145–156 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Khayam and H. Benisty, “General recipe for flatbands in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14634–14648 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Danglot, J.

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

David, A.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Enoch, S.

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Friesem, A. A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hall, T. J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ilovitsh, T.

Itawi, A.

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Janz, S.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kashkarov, P. N.

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khayam, O.

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Khayam and H. Benisty, “General recipe for flatbands in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14634–14648 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lapointe, J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Largeau, L.

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mauguin, O.

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Molina-Fernandez, I.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mondher, B.

Mondry, M. J.

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Olivier, S.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pang, C.

C. Pang, H. Benisty, B. Mondher, A. Talneau, and X. Pommarede, “Oxide-free InP-on-Silicon-on-Insulator nanopatterned waveguides: propagation losses assessment through end-fire and internal probe measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(6), 1048–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Pang and H. Benisty, “Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 11(2), 145–156 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Pantzas, K.

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, G.

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, I. G.

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Piskunov, N.

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pommarede, X.

Pottage, J. M.

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rattier, M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Roblin, C.

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shubely, M.

Smith, C. J. M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sukenik, C. N.

Talneau, A.

C. Pang, H. Benisty, B. Mondher, A. Talneau, and X. Pommarede, “Oxide-free InP-on-Silicon-on-Insulator nanopatterned waveguides: propagation losses assessment through end-fire and internal probe measurements,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(6), 1048–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, K.

Watanabe, K.

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zadok, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Talneau, C. Roblin, A. Itawi, O. Mauguin, L. Largeau, G. S. Beaudoin, I. G. Patriarche, C. Pang, and H. Benisty, “Atomic-plane-thick reconstruction across the interface during heteroepitaxial bonding of InP-clad quantum wells on Silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 212101 (2013).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Benisty, J. Danglot, A. Talneau, S. Enoch, J. M. Pottage, and A. David, “Investigation of Extracting Photonic Crystal Lattices for Guided Modes of GaAs-Based Heterostructures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(8), 777–789 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant Grating Waveguide Structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(11), 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. J. Mondry, D. I. Babic, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Refractive Indexes of (Al, Ga, I n)As Epilayers on InP for Optoelectronic Applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(6), 627–630 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, R. Halir, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, J. Fedeli, T. J. Hall, B. Lamontagne, R. Ma, I. Molina-Fernandez, and D.-X. Xu, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings in silicon microphotonic waveguides,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 597–607 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

A. Itawi, K. Pantzas, I. Sagnes, G. Patriarche, and A. Talneau, “Void-free direct bonding of InP to Si: Advantages of low H-content and ozone activation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(2), 021201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photonics Reviews (1)

J. K. Doylend and A. P. Knights, “The evolution of silicon photonics as an enabling technology for optical interconnection,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(4), 504–525 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications (1)

C. Pang and H. Benisty, “Nanostructured silicon geometries for directly bonded hybrid III–V-silicon active devices,” Photonics and Nanostructures-Fundamentals and Applications 11(2), 145–156 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Benisty, N. Piskunov, P. N. Kashkarov, and O. Khayam, “Crossing of manifolds leads to flat dispersion: Blazed Littrow waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 84(6), 063825 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, R. Houdré, and C. Weisbuch, “Mini stopbands of a one-dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(12), 126501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci Rep (1)

K. Tanabe, K. Watanabe, and Y. Arakawa, “III-V/Si hybrid photonic devices by direct fusion bonding,” Sci Rep 2, 349 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Keyvaninia, S. Verstuyft, S. F. Lelarge, G. H. Duan, S. Messaoudene, J. M. Fedeli, E. J. Geluk, T. D. Vries, B. Smalbrugge, J. Bolk, M. K. Smit, D. V. Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “Heterogeneously integrated III-V/Si single mode lasers based on a MMI-ring configuration and triplet-ring reflectors,” in SPIE Microtechnologies, 87670N, International Society for Optics and Photonics (2013).

K. Pantzas, A. Itawi, L. Couraud, J. C. Esnault, and E. Le Bourhis, “Electrical transport across the heterointerface of InP membranes bonded oxide-free on Si”, paper TuD2–3, 26th International Conference on InP and Related Materials (IPRM 2014), Montpellier, May 11–15th, 2014.
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Effective medium made of nanostructured silicon in a hybrid silicon-III-V heterostructure elaborated by oxide-free bonding; (b) Micrograph of the slab section with quantum-wells revealed; (c) scheme of electrical injection and fundamental mode profile allowed by the lowered index of nanostructured silicon; (d) Modulated square lattices with every third hole slightly bigger with the three pairs of diameters used; (e) Ewald diagram for diffraction in air; (f) set-up to get an angular spectrum by translating a slit in the imaging path.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Expected effective indices of TE and TM modes for the simplified heterostructure as a function of an isotropic effective-material low index slab of 270 nm replacing the silicon top part. Note the anticrossing behavior of the TE1 and TE2 modes around an effective-material index n~3; (b) Structure stack; (c) Average index of a typical SCH layer; (d) Mode profiles of the first three TE modes in the non-etched bonded stack at λ = 1505 nm; (e) Same with a nanostructured layer of ~isotropic index nhom,xy = nSi – 0.25~3.23; (f) Same with nhom,xy = nSi – 0.40 ~3.08; (g) Same with nhom,xy = nSi – 0.55 ~2.93. The fundamental mode is repelled in the III-V stack for lower nhom,xy. Its overlap with the nanostructured layer decreases. The anticrossing behavior of modes TE1 and TE2 clearly appears as Si guidance is driven to lower effective indices by the diminishing nhom,xy.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-c) Experimental angular spectra (abscissa: k||/ko ≡ numerical aperture) for the three filling factors (f1, f2, f3) and for the period 480nm = 3 × 160 nm; (d-f) Same for the period 510 nm = 3 × 170 nm; calculated TE branches are the blue dots, TM ones are the green dots. Bluish semi-transparent rectangles at top and bottom of maps underline modes TE0, TE1, TE2.

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