Abstract

This paper discusses a photon-counting linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with computational integral imaging (II). The computational II method reconstructs three-dimensional (3D) objects on the reconstruction planes located at arbitrary depth-levels. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) can be used to estimate the Poisson parameters of photon counts in the reconstruction space. The photon-counting LDA combined with the computational II method is developed in order to classify partially occluded objects with photon-limited images. Unknown targets are classified with the estimated Poisson parameters while reconstructed irradiance images are trained. It is shown that a low number of photons are sufficient to classify occluded objects with the proposed method.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R Acad. Sci. vol. 146, no. 139, pp. 446-451, 1908
  2. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Time-multiplexed integral imaging for 3D sensing and display,” Optics and Photonics News, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 36-43, 2004
  3. J.-Y. Song, B. Javidi, and K.-D, Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 502-523, 2006
  4. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 483-491, 2004
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. S. Hwang, S. H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” Journal of Display Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 64-70, 2007
  6. B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S. H. Hong, “Threedimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Optics Letter, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1106-1108, 2006
    [Crossref]
  7. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 5116-5126, 2005
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Yeom and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional distortion tolerant object recognition using integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 23, pp. 5795-5809, 2004
    [Crossref]
  9. G. M. Morris, “Scene matching using photon-limited images,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 482-488, 1984
  10. E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging,” Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 6075- 6084, 1990
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Imaging thermal objects with photon-counting detector,” Applied Optics, vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 4751-4757, 1992
  12. L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, “Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 75-79, 2001
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Guillanume, P. Melon, and P. Refregier, “Maximumlikelihood estimation of an astronomical image from a sequence at low photon levels,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2841-2848, 1998
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 9310-9330, 2005
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photoncounting integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1513-1533, 2007
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, C.-W. Lee, and E. Watson, “Photoncounting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects,” Optics Express , vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 16189-16195, 2007
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Yeom, “Photon-counting analysis with computational integral imaging for occluded target recognition(invited paper)”, 15th the Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference, 2008
  18. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern classification 2nd, (Wiley Inter-science, New York, 2001)
  19. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1985)
  20. A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1991)

2008 (1)

S. Yeom, “Photon-counting analysis with computational integral imaging for occluded target recognition(invited paper)”, 15th the Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference, 2008

2007 (3)

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photoncounting integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1513-1533, 2007
[Crossref]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, C.-W. Lee, and E. Watson, “Photoncounting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects,” Optics Express , vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 16189-16195, 2007
[Crossref]

Y. S. Hwang, S. H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” Journal of Display Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 64-70, 2007

2006 (2)

B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S. H. Hong, “Threedimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Optics Letter, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1106-1108, 2006
[Crossref]

J.-Y. Song, B. Javidi, and K.-D, Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 502-523, 2006

2005 (2)

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 5116-5126, 2005
[Crossref]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 9310-9330, 2005
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

S. Yeom and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional distortion tolerant object recognition using integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 23, pp. 5795-5809, 2004
[Crossref]

S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 483-491, 2004
[Crossref]

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Time-multiplexed integral imaging for 3D sensing and display,” Optics and Photonics News, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 36-43, 2004

2001 (2)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern classification 2nd, (Wiley Inter-science, New York, 2001)

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, “Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 75-79, 2001
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Guillanume, P. Melon, and P. Refregier, “Maximumlikelihood estimation of an astronomical image from a sequence at low photon levels,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2841-2848, 1998
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Imaging thermal objects with photon-counting detector,” Applied Optics, vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 4751-4757, 1992

1991 (1)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1991)

1990 (1)

E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging,” Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 6075- 6084, 1990
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1985)

1984 (1)

G. M. Morris, “Scene matching using photon-limited images,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 482-488, 1984

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R Acad. Sci. vol. 146, no. 139, pp. 446-451, 1908

15th the Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference (1)

S. Yeom, “Photon-counting analysis with computational integral imaging for occluded target recognition(invited paper)”, 15th the Optoelectronics and Optical Communications Conference, 2008

Applied Optics (1)

E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Imaging thermal objects with photon-counting detector,” Applied Optics, vol. 31, no. 23, pp. 4751-4757, 1992

C. R Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrale,” C. R Acad. Sci. vol. 146, no. 139, pp. 446-451, 1908

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Watson and G. M. Morris, “Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging,” Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 6075- 6084, 1990
[Crossref]

JOSA A (1)

M. Guillanume, P. Melon, and P. Refregier, “Maximumlikelihood estimation of an astronomical image from a sequence at low photon levels,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 2841-2848, 1998
[Crossref]

Journal of Display Technology (1)

Y. S. Hwang, S. H. Hong, and B. Javidi, “Free view 3-D visualization of occluded objects by using computational synthetic aperture integral imaging,” Journal of Display Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 64-70, 2007

Journal of Optical Society of America A (1)

G. M. Morris, “Scene matching using photon-limited images,” Journal of Optical Society of America A, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 482-488, 1984

Optics and Photonics News (1)

J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Time-multiplexed integral imaging for 3D sensing and display,” Optics and Photonics News, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 36-43, 2004

Optics Express (6)

S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 483-491, 2004
[Crossref]

J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 13, pp. 5116-5126, 2005
[Crossref]

S. Yeom and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional distortion tolerant object recognition using integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 12, no. 23, pp. 5795-5809, 2004
[Crossref]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition,” Optics Express, vol. 13, no. 23, pp. 9310-9330, 2005
[Crossref]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, “Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photoncounting integral imaging,” Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1513-1533, 2007
[Crossref]

S. Yeom, B. Javidi, C.-W. Lee, and E. Watson, “Photoncounting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects,” Optics Express , vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 16189-16195, 2007
[Crossref]

Optics Letters (1)

B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S. H. Hong, “Threedimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Optics Letter, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1106-1108, 2006
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the IEEE (1)

J.-Y. Song, B. Javidi, and K.-D, Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 502-523, 2006

Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (1)

L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, “Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 75-79, 2001
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, and D. G. Stork, Pattern classification 2nd, (Wiley Inter-science, New York, 2001)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1985)

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1991)

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