Abstract

We have developed a miniature fisheye lens with <TEX>$190^{\circ}$</TEX> field of view operating simultaneously in the visible and the near infrared wavelengths. The modulation transfer function characteristic for the visible wavelength is sufficient for a mega-pixel-grade image sensor. The lens also has a fair resolution in the infrared wavelength region. The calibrated <TEX>$f-{\theta}$</TEX> distortion is less than 5%, and the relative illumination is over 90%. In consequence, a sharp wide-angle image can be obtained which is uniform in brightness over the entire range of field angles. The real image heights for the visible and the near infrared wavelengths have been fitted to polynomial functions of incidence angle with sub-pixel accuracies. Combined with the near equidistance projection scheme of the lens, this lens can be advantageously employed in various image-processing applications requiring a wide-angle lens.

© 2008 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. R. W. Wood,“Fish-eye views, and vision under water,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 12, no. 68, pp. 159-162, 1906
  2. W. N. Bond,“A wide angle lens for cloud recording,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 44, no. 263, pp. 999-1001, 1922
  3. R. Hill, “A lens for whole sky photographs,” Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., vol.50, pp.227-235, 1924
  4. C. Beck,“Apparatus to photograph the whole sky,”J. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 2, pp. 135-139, 1925
    [Crossref]
  5. J. M. Slater, “Photography with the whole-sky lens,” Am. Photographer, pp. 580-583, 1932
  6. K. Miyamoto, “Fish-eye lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am., vol. 54, pp. 1060-1061, 1964
  7. M. Isshiki and K. Matsuki, “Achromatic super wideangle lens,” US patent 3524697, 1970
  8. Y. Shimizu, “Wide-angle fisheye lens,” US patent 3737214, 1973
  9. R. Doshi, “Fisheye projection lens for large format film,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2000, pp. 53-61, 1993
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Weigel, B. Moll, and B. J. Beers, “Ghost image debugging on a 240 degree fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2774, pp. 598-609, 1996
    [Crossref]
  11. J. J. Kumler and M. Bauer, “Fisheye lens designs and their relative performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4093, pp. 360-369, 2000
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Yasuhiro and Y. Kazuyoshi, “Fisheye lens and photographing apparatus with the same,” Japanese patent 2006-098942, 2006
  13. A. Ning, “Compact fisheye objective lens,” US patent 7023628, 2006
  14. M. Kawada, “Fisheye lens unit,” US patent 7283312, 2007
  15. N. Alvertos, E. L. Hall, and R. L. Anderson, “Omnidirec ional viewing for robot vision,” Proceedings of the SPIE conference on robot vision and sensory control (Cambridge, MA, Nov. 6-10, 1983), pp. 309-318
  16. M. Ehtashami, S. J. Oh, and E. L. Hall, “Omnidirecincidence tional position location for mobile robots,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 521, pp. 62-73, 1984
  17. S. D. Zimmermann, “Omniview motionless camera orientation system,” US patent 5185667, 1993
  18. H. L. Martin and D. P. Kuban, “System for omnidirectional image viewing at a remote location without the transmission of control signals to select viewing parameters,” US patent 5384588, 1995
  19. E. Gullichsen and S. Wyshynski, “Wide-angle image dewarping method and apparatus,” US patent 6005611, 1999
  20. N. L. Max, “Computer graphics distortion for IMAX and OMNIMAX projection,” Proc. NICOGRAPH"83, pp. 137-159, 1983
  21. N. Greene, “Environment mapping and other applications of world projections,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 21-29, 1986
  22. T. J. Herbert, “Calibration of fisheye lenses by inversion of area projections,” Appl. Opt., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1875-1876, 1986
  23. Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1330-1334, 2000
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Kawada, “Fisheye lens unit,” US patent 7283312, 2007

2006 (2)

K. Yasuhiro and Y. Kazuyoshi, “Fisheye lens and photographing apparatus with the same,” Japanese patent 2006-098942, 2006

A. Ning, “Compact fisheye objective lens,” US patent 7023628, 2006

2000 (2)

J. J. Kumler and M. Bauer, “Fisheye lens designs and their relative performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4093, pp. 360-369, 2000
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1330-1334, 2000
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. Gullichsen and S. Wyshynski, “Wide-angle image dewarping method and apparatus,” US patent 6005611, 1999

1996 (1)

T. Weigel, B. Moll, and B. J. Beers, “Ghost image debugging on a 240 degree fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2774, pp. 598-609, 1996
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. L. Martin and D. P. Kuban, “System for omnidirectional image viewing at a remote location without the transmission of control signals to select viewing parameters,” US patent 5384588, 1995

1993 (2)

S. D. Zimmermann, “Omniview motionless camera orientation system,” US patent 5185667, 1993

R. Doshi, “Fisheye projection lens for large format film,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2000, pp. 53-61, 1993
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

N. Greene, “Environment mapping and other applications of world projections,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 21-29, 1986

T. J. Herbert, “Calibration of fisheye lenses by inversion of area projections,” Appl. Opt., vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1875-1876, 1986

1984 (1)

M. Ehtashami, S. J. Oh, and E. L. Hall, “Omnidirecincidence tional position location for mobile robots,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 521, pp. 62-73, 1984

1983 (2)

N. Alvertos, E. L. Hall, and R. L. Anderson, “Omnidirec ional viewing for robot vision,” Proceedings of the SPIE conference on robot vision and sensory control (Cambridge, MA, Nov. 6-10, 1983), pp. 309-318

N. L. Max, “Computer graphics distortion for IMAX and OMNIMAX projection,” Proc. NICOGRAPH"83, pp. 137-159, 1983

1973 (1)

Y. Shimizu, “Wide-angle fisheye lens,” US patent 3737214, 1973

1970 (1)

M. Isshiki and K. Matsuki, “Achromatic super wideangle lens,” US patent 3524697, 1970

1964 (1)

1932 (1)

J. M. Slater, “Photography with the whole-sky lens,” Am. Photographer, pp. 580-583, 1932

1925 (1)

C. Beck,“Apparatus to photograph the whole sky,”J. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 2, pp. 135-139, 1925
[Crossref]

1924 (1)

R. Hill, “A lens for whole sky photographs,” Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., vol.50, pp.227-235, 1924

1922 (1)

W. N. Bond,“A wide angle lens for cloud recording,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 44, no. 263, pp. 999-1001, 1922

1906 (1)

R. W. Wood,“Fish-eye views, and vision under water,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 12, no. 68, pp. 159-162, 1906

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications (1)

N. Greene, “Environment mapping and other applications of world projections,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 21-29, 1986

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Beck,“Apparatus to photograph the whole sky,”J. Sci. Instrum. , vol. 2, pp. 135-139, 1925
[Crossref]

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1330-1334, 2000
[Crossref]

Phil. Mag. S. 6 (2)

R. W. Wood,“Fish-eye views, and vision under water,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 12, no. 68, pp. 159-162, 1906

W. N. Bond,“A wide angle lens for cloud recording,” Phil. Mag. S. 6, vol. 44, no. 263, pp. 999-1001, 1922

Proc. NICOGRAPH’83 (1)

N. L. Max, “Computer graphics distortion for IMAX and OMNIMAX projection,” Proc. NICOGRAPH"83, pp. 137-159, 1983

Proc. SPIE (4)

M. Ehtashami, S. J. Oh, and E. L. Hall, “Omnidirecincidence tional position location for mobile robots,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 521, pp. 62-73, 1984

R. Doshi, “Fisheye projection lens for large format film,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2000, pp. 53-61, 1993
[Crossref]

T. Weigel, B. Moll, and B. J. Beers, “Ghost image debugging on a 240 degree fisheye lens,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 2774, pp. 598-609, 1996
[Crossref]

J. J. Kumler and M. Bauer, “Fisheye lens designs and their relative performance,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4093, pp. 360-369, 2000
[Crossref]

Proceedings of the SPIE conference on robot vision and sensory control (1)

N. Alvertos, E. L. Hall, and R. L. Anderson, “Omnidirec ional viewing for robot vision,” Proceedings of the SPIE conference on robot vision and sensory control (Cambridge, MA, Nov. 6-10, 1983), pp. 309-318

Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc. (1)

R. Hill, “A lens for whole sky photographs,” Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., vol.50, pp.227-235, 1924

Other (9)

J. M. Slater, “Photography with the whole-sky lens,” Am. Photographer, pp. 580-583, 1932

K. Yasuhiro and Y. Kazuyoshi, “Fisheye lens and photographing apparatus with the same,” Japanese patent 2006-098942, 2006

A. Ning, “Compact fisheye objective lens,” US patent 7023628, 2006

M. Kawada, “Fisheye lens unit,” US patent 7283312, 2007

M. Isshiki and K. Matsuki, “Achromatic super wideangle lens,” US patent 3524697, 1970

Y. Shimizu, “Wide-angle fisheye lens,” US patent 3737214, 1973

S. D. Zimmermann, “Omniview motionless camera orientation system,” US patent 5185667, 1993

H. L. Martin and D. P. Kuban, “System for omnidirectional image viewing at a remote location without the transmission of control signals to select viewing parameters,” US patent 5384588, 1995

E. Gullichsen and S. Wyshynski, “Wide-angle image dewarping method and apparatus,” US patent 6005611, 1999

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