Abstract

A theoretical analysis of the characteristics of the hybrid surface plasmon of a monolayer graphene-wrapped metamaterial-filled cylindrical waveguide is performed. The dispersion relations for different configurations of metamaterials [double positive (DPS)–graphene–DPS, DPS–graphene–double negative (DNG), DNG–graphene–DPS, and DNG–graphene–DNG] are simulated by solving Maxwell’s equations for cylindrical symmetry and implementing impedance boundary conditions at the interface. The electromagnetic response of graphene is modeled using Kubo’s formalism. The influence of the geometrical parameters of the waveguide structure, the chemical potential of graphene and the parameters of partnering materials on the dispersion curve, the effective mode index, and the phase velocity is presented. It is observed that the existence of graphene along with metamaterials provides better control and tuning of the propagation of the surface waves. The backward surface waves, forward surface waves, and slow surface waves for the fundamental mode are studied for different waveguide configurations. The results are found to be in accordance with the published literature. These results may have potential applications in tuning surface waves, waveguide technology, modulators, backward-wave amplifiers, traveling-wave masers, frequency selectors, circular polarizers, switching and phase compensation, and graphene-based slow-light devices.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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