Abstract

We analyze the evolution of quantum noise in both the fundamental and the harmonic fields that are undergoing traveling-wave interaction in a second-order [χ(2)] nonlinear medium. Assuming perfect phase matching between the fundamental and the harmonic fields and arbitrary input boundary conditions, the behavior of quantum noise in the propagating fields is studied by linearization of the nonlinear-operator equations around the mean-field values. We first consider the degenerate case that is applicable to type-I phase-matching geometries, obtaining expressions for squeezing in both the fundamental and the harmonic fields. We then analyze the polarization-nondegenerate case that applies to type-II phase-matching geometries. In the special case, when the two orthogonally polarized fundamental inputs are of equal amplitude, we obtain analytical results and show that the type-II phase-matched second-harmonic-generation process can be configured to generate sub-Poissonian light in both polarization components of the fundamental field. Finally, we numerically solve the linearized quadrature-operator equations along with the nonlinear mean-field equations for the general case of type-II phase matching. For both type-I and type-II processes, we find that whenever the fundamental field experiences deamplification it is associated with amplitude squeezing and phase desqueezing. If, in contrast, the fundamental field experiences amplification, then it is accompanied by amplitude desqueezing, but with squeezing in the phase quadrature. The harmonic field is amplitude squeezed if the input boundary condition leads to harmonic conversion and is phase squeezed if the input boundary condition leads to parametric amplification.

© 1995 Optical Society of America

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