Abstract

Optical sampling is performed mostly in either time or frequency domain. In the former approach, sampling points are temporally taken by photo-mixing of received signals with locally generated ultrashort pulses. In the latter approach, the received signal is spectrally sliced and decomposed, which are taken as sampling points in the frequency domain. In this paper, as an alternative way, we propose and investigate an optical sampling technique called optical time-frequency-domain sampling, in which sampling points are taken in the time-frequency domain in an optoelectronic manner, by means of optoelectronic coherent matched detectors. Using this technique, it is possible to demultiplex and detect subchannels of ultrawideband multi-carrier signals at e.g. 100, 400 Gb/s, 1 Tb/s or higher, without relying on either ultrashort pulses or high-resolution optical filters necessary in the conventional time- or frequency-domain sampling approaches. Moreover, in this paper, we propose and demonstrate a loop-assisted coherent matched detector that simply and practically extends the time-frequency sampling to parallel sampling configuration just using a single coherent matched detector. Provided are some experimental proof focusing on demultiplexing and detection of orthogonal time-frequency-domain multipelxed (OTFDM) signals, a sort of ultrawideband multicarrier signals. All subchannels of 160-Gb/s QPSK-OTFDM signals are simultaneously detected and measured with the loop-assisted coherent matched detector employing a single set of low-speed 10-Gbaud photo-receivers.

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  1. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. 2006 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2006, Paper PDP39.
  2. W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.
  3. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.
  4. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.
  5. A. Sanoet al., “30x100 Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, Paper PDP 1.7.
  6. M. Nakazawa, T. Hirooka, P. Ruan, and P. Guan, “Ultrahigh-speed orthogonal OTDM transmission with an optical nyquist pulse train,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1129–1140, 2012.
  7. T. Sakamotoet al., “160-Gb/s orthogonal time-frequency domain multiplexed QPSK for ultra-high-spectral-efficient transmission,” in Proc. 37th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper We.10.P1.77.
  8. T. Sakamoto, “Orthogonal time-frequency domain multiplexing with multilevel signaling,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 773–781, 2014.
  9. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.
  10. F. Ito, “Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optic signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 930–937, 1997.
  11. C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.
  12. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Multi-frequency heterodyne system for all-optical-technology-free ultrafast optical waveform measurement,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, pp. 1–2.
  13. K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.
  14. K. J. Fischeret al., “Digital coherent receiver based on parallel optical sampling,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2010, Paper Th10.A.4.
  15. N. K. Fontaineet al., “228-GHz coherent receiver using digital optical bandwidth interleaving and reception of 214-Gbd (856-Gb/s) PDM-QPSK,” in Proc. 38th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2012, Paper Th.3.A.1.
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  18. T. Sakamoto, “Opto-electronic time-frequency domain sampling forultra high-bandwidth multi-carrier signal detection,” in Proc. 2016 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., 2016, Paper Th3H.4.
  19. S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.
  20. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentive Hall-PTR, 1998.
  21. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1515–1517, 2007.
  22. T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Multi-tone coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 18602–18610, 2013.
  23. T. Sakamoto, “Coherent matched detection with multi-input-multi-output equalization for demultiplexing/demodulation of orthogonally time/frequency domain multiplexed signal,” in Proc. Conf. Laser Electro Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2012, Paper CF1F4.

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

2003 (1)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

1997 (1)

F. Ito, “Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optic signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 930–937, 1997.

1994 (1)

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Armstrong, J.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. 2006 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2006, Paper PDP39.

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentive Hall-PTR, 1998.

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

Du, L.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. 2006 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2006, Paper PDP39.

Fischer, K. J.

K. J. Fischeret al., “Digital coherent receiver based on parallel optical sampling,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2010, Paper Th10.A.4.

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaineet al., “228-GHz coherent receiver using digital optical bandwidth interleaving and reception of 214-Gbd (856-Gb/s) PDM-QPSK,” in Proc. 38th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2012, Paper Th.3.A.1.

Gagnon, D. S. L

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.

Guan, P.

Hirooka, T.

Igarashi, K.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.

Ito, F.

F. Ito, “Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optic signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 930–937, 1997.

Izutsu, M.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1515–1517, 2007.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Multi-frequency heterodyne system for all-optical-technology-free ultrafast optical waveform measurement,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, pp. 1–2.

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

Katoh, K.

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Multi-tone coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 18602–18610, 2013.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1515–1517, 2007.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Loop-assisted multi-input-multi-output coherent matched detector for ultra high-bandwidth parallel optical time-frequency domain sampling,” in Proc. 2015 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., . 2015, Paper M2E.6.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Multi-frequency heterodyne system for all-optical-technology-free ultrafast optical waveform measurement,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, pp. 1–2.

Kikuchi, K.

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.

Kilper, D. C.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

Kitoh, T.

Liu, X.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.

Lowery, A. J.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. 2006 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2006, Paper PDP39.

Lu, G.W.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Multi-tone coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 18602–18610, 2013.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Loop-assisted multi-input-multi-output coherent matched detector for ultra high-bandwidth parallel optical time-frequency domain sampling,” in Proc. 2015 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., . 2015, Paper M2E.6.

Mori, A.

Mori, K.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Mori, Y.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.

Morioka, T.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

Nakazawa, M.

Oguma, M.

Peckham, D. W.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.

Raybon, G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

Raymer, M. G.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

Ruan, P.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Sakamoto, “Orthogonal time-frequency domain multiplexing with multilevel signaling,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 773–781, 2014.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Multi-tone coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 16, pp. 18602–18610, 2013.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Asymptotic formalism for ultraflat optical frequency comb generation using a Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1515–1517, 2007.

T. Sakamoto, “Coherent matched detection with multi-input-multi-output equalization for demultiplexing/demodulation of orthogonally time/frequency domain multiplexed signal,” in Proc. Conf. Laser Electro Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2012, Paper CF1F4.

T. Sakamotoet al., “160-Gb/s orthogonal time-frequency domain multiplexed QPSK for ultra-high-spectral-efficient transmission,” in Proc. 37th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper We.10.P1.77.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Multi-frequency heterodyne system for all-optical-technology-free ultrafast optical waveform measurement,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, pp. 1–2.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Loop-assisted multi-input-multi-output coherent matched detector for ultra high-bandwidth parallel optical time-frequency domain sampling,” in Proc. 2015 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., . 2015, Paper M2E.6.

T. Sakamoto, “Opto-electronic time-frequency domain sampling forultra high-bandwidth multi-carrier signal detection,” in Proc. 2016 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., 2016, Paper Th3H.4.

Sano, A.

A. Sanoet al., “30x100 Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, Paper PDP 1.7.

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Schenk, T.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

Stuart, H. R.

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

Takahashi, H.

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

Takeda, N.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

Takiguchi, K.

Tanaka, H.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

Tsukamoto, S.

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.

Zhang, C.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.

Zhu, B.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 587–589, 2006.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, and M. Saruwatari, “100 gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1152–1153, 1994.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Dorrer, D. C. Kilper, H. R. Stuart, G. Raybon, and M. G. Raymer, “Linear optical sampling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1746–1748, 2003.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. Schenk, N. Takeda, and H. Tanaka, “Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2008.

F. Ito, “Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optic signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 930–937, 1997.

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (13)

T. Sakamoto, “Coherent matched detection with multi-input-multi-output equalization for demultiplexing/demodulation of orthogonally time/frequency domain multiplexed signal,” in Proc. Conf. Laser Electro Opt., San Jose, CA, USA, 2012, Paper CF1F4.

T. Sakamoto, G.W. Lu, and T. Kawanishi, “Loop-assisted multi-input-multi-output coherent matched detector for ultra high-bandwidth parallel optical time-frequency domain sampling,” in Proc. 2015 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., . 2015, Paper M2E.6.

T. Sakamoto, “Opto-electronic time-frequency domain sampling forultra high-bandwidth multi-carrier signal detection,” in Proc. 2016 Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun., 2016, Paper Th3H.4.

S. Tsukamoto, D. S. L Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” in Proc. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2005, Paper PDP29.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentive Hall-PTR, 1998.

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Multi-frequency heterodyne system for all-optical-technology-free ultrafast optical waveform measurement,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, pp. 1–2.

K. Kikuchi, K. Igarashi, Y. Mori, and C. Zhang, “Demodulation of 320-gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal with digital coherent receiver having time-division demultiplexing function,” in Proc. 2008 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2008, Paper OtuO4.

K. J. Fischeret al., “Digital coherent receiver based on parallel optical sampling,” in Proc. 36th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2010, Paper Th10.A.4.

N. K. Fontaineet al., “228-GHz coherent receiver using digital optical bandwidth interleaving and reception of 214-Gbd (856-Gb/s) PDM-QPSK,” in Proc. 38th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2012, Paper Th.3.A.1.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. 2006 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2006, Paper PDP39.

T. Sakamotoet al., “160-Gb/s orthogonal time-frequency domain multiplexed QPSK for ultra-high-spectral-efficient transmission,” in Proc. 37th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper We.10.P1.77.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 1.2-Tb/s 24-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFD supperchannel over 7200-km of ultra-large-area fiber,” in Proc. 35th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2009, Paper PD2.6.

A. Sanoet al., “30x100 Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in Proc. 33th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2007, Paper PDP 1.7.

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