Abstract

A novel optic-fiber vibration sensing system based on frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI) is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. The sensor is based on the phenomenon that the light frequency transmitted through a segment of bent fiber can be Doppler shifted by vibration. The Doppler frequency shift is measured using FSI demodulation. Compared to traditional fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor, the proposed sensor is easy to fabricate, of low cost and without directional dependency. The application of FSI demodulation allows for custom tailoring of measurement sensitivity, and has superior signal stability due to its same-path interference nature. The measured Doppler frequency shift using the FSI system agrees well with the calculated one, derived from strain measurements. The results show that the system has a high sensitivity and wide frequency range, limited only by the excitation apparatus used in the experiment.

© 2016 OAPA

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  1. Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.
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  11. I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.
  12. K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.
  13. F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.
  14. M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.
  15. C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.
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  17. F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.
  18. B. Qi, A. Tausz, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber length measurement based on a frequency-shifted asymmetric Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 3287–3289, 2005.
  19. F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.
  20. Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.
  21. H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.
  22. F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.
  23. X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

2016 (1)

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

2015 (6)

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

2014 (1)

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

2013 (1)

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

2012 (1)

P. Wei, X. Shan, and X. Sun, “Frequency response of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor based on nonbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012.

2010 (2)

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

H. Tsuda, “Fiber Bragg grating vibration-sensing system, insensitive to Bragg wavelength and employing fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett., vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 2349–2351, 2010.

2009 (3)

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.

2008 (1)

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

2006 (1)

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

2005 (2)

B. Qi, A. Tausz, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber length measurement based on a frequency-shifted asymmetric Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 3287–3289, 2005.

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

2004 (2)

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.

Akematsu, Y.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

Atsushi, W.

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

Benli, Y.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Bo, C.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Cai, L.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Cao, J.

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Chang, J.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Cheng, C.

Chiu, M. H.

M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.

Dai, Y.

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Dinakar, D.

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

Ding, Z.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Fan, D.

Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Gang, X.

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Guo, H.

Hale, J. M.

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

Han, Y.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

He, Z.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Hiroyuki, S.

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

Hsu, S. N.

M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.

Huo, D.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Jiang, J.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Jin, X.

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Jing, L.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Kageyama, K.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Kanai, M.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Kishore, P.

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

Li, F.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

Li, M.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Li, T.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Li, W.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Li, Z.

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Liang, W.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Liang, Y.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Liu, D.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Liu, F.

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

Liu, K.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Liu, M.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

Liu, S.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Liu, T.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Liu, X.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Liu, Y.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

Lo, H.-K.

Ma, C.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Ma, L.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Machijima, Y.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Matsumura, F.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Min, L.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Murayama, H.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Nagata, K.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Nobuaki, T.

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

Ogawa, T.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

Ohsawa, I.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Ou, Y.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.

Pan, L.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Qi, B.

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

B. Qi, A. Tausz, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber length measurement based on a frequency-shifted asymmetric Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 3287–3289, 2005.

Qian, L.

Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

B. Qi, A. Tausz, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “High-resolution, large dynamic range fiber length measurement based on a frequency-shifted asymmetric Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett., vol. 30, pp. 3287–3289, 2005.

Qu, Y.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

Ran, Y.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Rao, P. Vengal

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

Rohollahnejad, J.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Ruffin, P. B.

S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2008.

Satoshi, T.

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

Shan, X.

P. Wei, X. Shan, and X. Sun, “Frequency response of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor based on nonbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012.

Shenglai, Z.

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Shirai, T.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

Srimannarayana, K.

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

Stephenson, R.

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

Sun, X.

P. Wei, X. Shan, and X. Sun, “Frequency response of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor based on nonbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012.

Tan, Y.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

Tausz, A.

Tian, H.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Tian, M.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

Tian, T.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Tsuda, H.

Uzawa, K.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

Wang, C.

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

Wei, P.

P. Wei, X. Shan, and X. Sun, “Frequency response of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor based on nonbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012.

Wen, Y.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

White, J. R.

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

Xia, L.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Yang, H.

M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.

Ye, F.

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

Yin, S.

S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2008.

Yu, F. T. S.

S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2008.

Zhang, Y.

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

Zheng, K.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Zhou, C.

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Y. Ou, C. Zhou, L. Qian, D. Fan, C. Cheng, and H. Guo, “Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 31484–31495, 2015.

Zhou, Z.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

H. Tian, C. Zhou, D. Fan, Y. Ou, T. Tian, W. Liang, and M. Li, “Continuous-wave frequency-shifted interferometry cavity ring-down gas sensing with differential optical absorption,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2015.

Y. Ran, L. Xia, Y. Han, W. Li, J. Rohollahnejad, Y. Wen, and D. Liu, “Vibration fiber sensors based on SM-NC-SM fiber structure,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2015.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Ye, L. Qian, Y. Liu, and B. Qi, “Using frequency-shifted interferometry for multiplexing a fiber Bragg grating array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 17, pp. 1488–1490, 2008.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

F. Ye, L. Qian, and B. Qi, “Multipoint chemical gas sensing using frequency-shifted interferometry,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 5356–5364, 2009.

K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, K. Uzawa, I. Ohsawa, M. Kanai, Y. Akematsu, K. Nagata, and T. Ogawa, “Doppler effect in flexible and expandable light waveguide and development of new fiber-optic vibration/acoustic sensor,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1768–1775, 2006.

C. Ma, T. Liu, K. Liu, J. Jiang, Z. Ding, L. Pan, and M. Tian, “Long-range distributed fiber vibration sensor using an asymmetric dual Mach–Zehnder interferometers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 2235–2239, 2016.

J. Opt. (1)

P. Kishore, D. Dinakar, P. Vengal Rao, and K. Srimannarayana, “Study the effect of fiber-dia on the alongside dual-plastic optical fiber vibration sensor,” J. Opt., vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 128–135, 2015.

J. Optoelectron. Laser (1)

X. Gang, Y. Dai, X. Jin, J. Cao, and Z. Li, “A high-frequency dual-FBG accelerometer and its demodulation method,” J. Optoelectron. Laser, vol. 8, pp. 1445–1450, 2013.

Jap. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Satoshi, S. Hiroyuki, W. Atsushi and T. Nobuaki, “Fiber-optic mechanical vibration sensor using long-period fiber grating,” Jap. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 48, no. 7S, pp. 07GE05, 2009.

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

P. Wei, X. Shan, and X. Sun, “Frequency response of distributed fiber-optic vibration sensor based on nonbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 47–51, 2012.

F. Li, H. Murayama, K. Kageyama, and T. Shirai, “Doppler effect-based fiber-optic sensor and its application in ultrasonic detection,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–303, 2009.

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Z. Shenglai, C. Bo, Y. Liang, L. Min, L. Jing, and Y. Benli, “A novel interferometric vibration measurement sensor with quadrature detection based on 1/8 wave plate,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 362–365, 2010.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Sens. (1)

T. Li, Y. Tan, Z. Zhou, L. Cai, S. Liu, Z. He, and K. Zheng, “Study on the non-contact FBG vibration sensor and its application,” Photon. Sens., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 128–136, 2015.

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci. (1)

J. M. Hale, J. R. White, R. Stephenson, and F. Liu, “Development of piezoelectric paint thick-film vibration sensors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C: J. Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 219, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2005.

Quant. Nondestruct. Eval. (1)

I. Ohsawa, K. Kageyama, H. Murayama, M. Kanai, Y. Machijima, F. Matsumura, and K. Nagata, “Development of a novel vibration sensor using optical fiber and its application to composite materials,” Quant. Nondestruct. Eval., vol. 700, no. 1, pp. 883–890, 2004.

Sens. Actuators, B: Chem. (1)

M. H. Chiu, S. N. Hsu, and H. Yang, “D-type fiber optic sensor used as a refractometer based on total-internal reflection heterodyne interferometry,” Sens. Actuators, B: Chem., vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 322–327, 2004.

Sensors (2)

T. Li, Y. Tan, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, M. Liu, and Z. Zhou, “A fiber Bragg grating sensing based triaxial vibration sensor,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 24214–24229, 2015.

F. Ye, Y. Zhang, B. Qi, and L. Qian, “Frequency-shifted interferometry—A versatile fiber-optic sensing technique,” Sensors, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 10977–11000, 2014.

Other (2)

J. Chang, D. Huo, L. Ma, X. Liu, T. Liu, and C. Wang, “Interrogation a fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor by narrow line width light,” presented at the 1st Asia-Pacific IEEE Optical Fiber Sensors Conf., Chengdu, China, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp = &arnumber = 5226319

S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Eds., Fiber Optic Sensors, 2nd ed.Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2008.

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