Abstract

Optical interconnects have attracted considerable attention for use in short-reach communication links within high-performance electronic systems, such as data centers, supercomputers, and data storage systems. Multimode polymer waveguides, in particular, constitute an attractive technology for use in board-level interconnects as they can be cost-effectively integrated onto standard PCBs and allow system assembly with relaxed alignment tolerances. However, their highly multimoded nature raises important concerns about their bandwidth limitations and their potential to support very high on-board data rates. In this paper, we report record error-free (BER < 10−12) 40 Gb/s data transmission over a 1-m-long multimode polymer spiral waveguide and present thorough studies on the waveguide bandwidth performance. The frequency response of the waveguide is investigated under a wide range of launch conditions and in the presence of input spatial offsets, which are expected to be highly-likely in real-world systems. A robust bandwidth performance is observed with a bandwidth-length product of at least 35 GHz×m for all launch conditions studied. The reported results clearly demonstrate the potential of this technology for use in board-level interconnects, and indicate that data rates of at least 40 Gb/s are feasible over waveguide lengths of 1 m.

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2014 (4)

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “A 40 Gb/s optical bus for optical backplane interconnections,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1526–1537, 2014.

R. Pitwonet al., “Demonstration of fully enabled data center subsystem with embedded optical interconnect,” Proc. SPIE, Opt. Interconnects XIV, vol. 8991, pp. 1–11, 2014.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. Penty, and I. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for ≥ 25 Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 2004–2007, 2014.

2013 (9)

B. W. Swatowskiet al., “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” Proc. SPIE, Organic Photon. Mater. Devices XV, vol. 8622, pp. 1–11, 2013.

A. Boersmaet al., “Polymer-based optical interconnects using nanoimprint lithography,” Proc. SPIE, Optoelectronic Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, pp. 1–9, 2013.

A. Sugama, K. Kawaguchi, M. Nishizawa, H. Muranaka, and Y. Arakawa, “Development of high-density single-mode polymer waveguides with low crosstalk for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, pp. 24231–24239, 2013.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-cost PCB-integrated 10-Gb/s optical transceiver built with a novel integration method,” IEEE Trans. Compon, Packag. Manuf. Technol., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 592–600, 2013.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

R. Kinoshita, K. Moriya, K. Choki, and T. Ishigure, “Polymer optical waveguides with GI and W-shaped cores for high-bandwidth-density on-board interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 4004–4015, 2013.

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, E. Skafidas, and K. Alameh, “High-speed free-space based reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects with broadcast capability,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, pp. 15395–15400, 2013.

K. Schmidtke, F. Flens, A. Worrall, R. Pitwon, F. Betschon, T. Lamprecht, and R. Krahenbuhl, “960 Gb/s optical backplane ecosystem using embedded polymer waveguides and demonstration in a 12G SAS storage array,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3970–3975, 2013.

S. Borkar, “Role of interconnects in the future of computing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3927–3933, 2013.

2012 (4)

M. A. Taubenblatt, “Optical interconnects for high-performance computing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 448–457, 2012.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

P. Westberghet al., “High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28 GHz modulation bandwidth operating error-free up to 44 Gbit/s,” Electron. Lett., vol. 48, pp. 1145–1147, 2012.

2011 (2)

A. Larsson, “Advances in VCSELs for communication and sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1552–1567, 2011.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3185–3195, 2011.

2009 (4)

J. Bealset al., “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., vol. 95, pp. 983–988, 2009.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2×4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

T. Kosugi and T. Ishigure, “Polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores and its dispersion analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, pp. 15959–15968, 2009.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

2008 (5)

P. Pepeljugoskiet al., “Comparison of bandwidth limits for on-card electrical and optical interconnects for 100 Gb/s and beyond,” Proc. SPIE, Optoelectronic Integr. Circuits X, vol. 6897, pp. 1–7, 2008.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 502–511, 2008.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nature Photon., vol. 2, pp. 242–246, 2008.

I.-K. Cho, J.-H. Ryu, and M.-Y. Jeong, “Interchip link system using an optical wiring method,” Opt. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 1881–1883, 2008.

2007 (4)

M. L. Brongersma, R. Zia, and J. A. Schuller, “Plasmonics—The missing link between nanoelectronics and microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., vol. 89, pp. 221–223, 2007.

J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, and T. Szkopek, “Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, crosstalk and energy costs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 4474–4484, 2007.

W. Xiaolong, W. Li, J. Wei, and R. T. Chen, “Hard-molded 51 cm long waveguide array with a 150 GHz bandwidth for board-level optical interconnects,” Opt. Lett., vol. 32, pp. 677–679, 2007.

J. V. DeGroot, “Cost-effective optical waveguide components for printed circuit applications,” Proc. SPIE, Passive Compon. Fiber-Based Devices IV, vol. 6781, pp. 1–12, 2007.

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

M. Immonen, M. Karppinen, and J. K. Kivilahti, “Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for three-dimensional board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 304–311, 2005.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, pp. 755–775, 2005.

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon-challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 4222–4238, 2005.

2004 (1)

C. Hoyeol, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Power comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2021–2033, 2004.

2003 (1)

D. W. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 614–623, 2003.

2002 (1)

F. Medereret al., “10 Gb/s data transmission with TO-packaged multimode GaAsVCSELs over 1 m long polymer waveguides for optical backplane applications,” Opt. Commun., vol. 206, pp. 309–312, 2002.

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 728–749, 2000.

Alameh, K.

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, E. Skafidas, and K. Alameh, “High-speed free-space based reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects with broadcast capability,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, pp. 15395–15400, 2013.

Amb, C. M.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. K. Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2014, pp. 1–3.

Arakawa, Y.

A. Sugama, K. Kawaguchi, M. Nishizawa, H. Muranaka, and Y. Arakawa, “Development of high-density single-mode polymer waveguides with low crosstalk for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, pp. 24231–24239, 2013.

Baghsiahi, H.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Bajkowski, D.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “A 40 Gb/s optical bus for optical backplane interconnections,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1526–1537, 2014.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. Penty, and I. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for ≥ 25 Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 2004–2007, 2014.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-cost PCB-integrated 10-Gb/s optical transceiver built with a novel integration method,” IEEE Trans. Compon, Packag. Manuf. Technol., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 592–600, 2013.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, P. Westbergh, and A. Larsson, “25 Gb/s data transmission over a 1.4 m long multimode polymer spiral waveguide,” presented at theProc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics, San Jose, CA, USA, 2014, Paper STu1G.7.

Beals, J.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-cost PCB-integrated 10-Gb/s optical transceiver built with a novel integration method,” IEEE Trans. Compon, Packag. Manuf. Technol., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 592–600, 2013.

J. Bealset al., “A terabit capacity passive polymer optical backplane based on a novel meshed waveguide architecture,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., vol. 95, pp. 983–988, 2009.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, pp. 755–775, 2005.

A. F. Benneret al., “Optics for high-performance servers and supercomputers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2010, pp. 1–3.

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Berry, J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Boersma, A.

A. Boersmaet al., “Polymer-based optical interconnects using nanoimprint lithography,” Proc. SPIE, Optoelectronic Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, pp. 1–9, 2013.

Bona, G. L.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

Borkar, S.

S. Borkar, “Role of interconnects in the future of computing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3927–3933, 2013.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3185–3195, 2011.

Broennimann, R.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma, R. Zia, and J. A. Schuller, “Plasmonics—The missing link between nanoelectronics and microphotonics,” Appl. Phys. A, Mater. Sci. Process., vol. 89, pp. 221–223, 2007.

Budd, R. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Carver, C.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Chan, B.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Chen, J.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. Penty, and I. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for ≥ 25 Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 2004–2007, 2014.

Chen, R. T.

Cho, I.-K.

Choki, K.

R. Kinoshita, K. Moriya, K. Choki, and T. Ishigure, “Polymer optical waveguides with GI and W-shaped cores for high-bandwidth-density on-board interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 4004–4015, 2013.

Clapp, T. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Conway, J. A.

J. A. Conway, S. Sahni, and T. Szkopek, “Plasmonic interconnects versus conventional interconnects: A comparison of latency, crosstalk and energy costs,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 4474–4484, 2007.

Dangel, R.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, “Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguides,” in Proc. LEOS Summer Top. Meet., 2004, pp. 31–32.

Davidson, H. L.

D. W. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 614–623, 2003.

DeGroot, J. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

J. V. DeGroot, “Cost-effective optical waveguide components for printed circuit applications,” Proc. SPIE, Passive Compon. Fiber-Based Devices IV, vol. 6781, pp. 1–12, 2007.

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Dereux, A.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3185–3195, 2011.

DeShazer, D. J.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, “Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguides,” in Proc. LEOS Summer Top. Meet., 2004, pp. 31–32.

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Graham, J.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nature Photon., vol. 2, pp. 242–246, 2008.

Hamelin, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Hashim, A.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “A 40 Gb/s optical bus for optical backplane interconnections,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1526–1537, 2014.

N. Bamiedakis, A. Hashim, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-cost PCB-integrated 10-Gb/s optical transceiver built with a novel integration method,” IEEE Trans. Compon, Packag. Manuf. Technol., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 592–600, 2013.

Hassan, K.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3185–3195, 2011.

Horst, F.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

How, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Hoyeol, C.

C. Hoyeol, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Power comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2021–2033, 2004.

Huang, D. W.

D. W. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 614–623, 2003.

Hyer, M. G.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. K. Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2014, pp. 1–3.

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, pp. 755–775, 2005.

Immonen, M.

M. Immonen, M. Karppinen, and J. K. Kivilahti, “Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for three-dimensional board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 304–311, 2005.

Ishigure, T.

R. Kinoshita, K. Moriya, K. Choki, and T. Ishigure, “Polymer optical waveguides with GI and W-shaped cores for high-bandwidth-density on-board interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 4004–4015, 2013.

T. Kosugi and T. Ishigure, “Polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores and its dispersion analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, pp. 15959–15968, 2009.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2×4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

Jahns, J.

Jarczynski, M.

Jeong, M.-Y.

Jianzhuang, H.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

John, R. S.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, M. G. Hyer, R. S. John, and W. K. Weidner, “Graded index silicone waveguides for high performance computing,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2014, pp. 1–3.

Jubin, D.

R. Dangel, F. Horst, D. Jubin, N. Meier, J. Weiss, B. J. Offrein, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, D. J. DeShazer, and W. K. Weidner, “Development of versatile polymer waveguide flex technology for use in optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 3915–3926, 2013.

Kai, W.

R. C. A. Pitwon, W. Kai, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. J. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Kapur, P.

C. Hoyeol, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, “Power comparison between high-speed electrical and optical interconnects for interchip communication,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2021–2033, 2004.

Karppinen, M.

M. Immonen, M. Karppinen, and J. K. Kivilahti, “Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for three-dimensional board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 304–311, 2005.

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, pp. 755–775, 2005.

J. A. Kashet al., “Optical interconnects in future servers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2011, pp. 1–3.

F. E. Doany, P. K. Pepeljugoski, A. C. Lehman, J. A. Kash, and R. Dangel, “Measurement of optical dispersion in multimode polymer waveguides,” in Proc. LEOS Summer Top. Meet., 2004, pp. 31–32.

Kawaguchi, K.

A. Sugama, K. Kawaguchi, M. Nishizawa, H. Muranaka, and Y. Arakawa, “Development of high-density single-mode polymer waveguides with low crosstalk for chip-to-chip optical interconnection,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, pp. 24231–24239, 2013.

Kinoshita, R.

R. Kinoshita, K. Moriya, K. Choki, and T. Ishigure, “Polymer optical waveguides with GI and W-shaped cores for high-bandwidth-density on-board interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 4004–4015, 2013.

Kivilahti, J. K.

M. Immonen, M. Karppinen, and J. K. Kivilahti, “Fabrication and characterization of polymer optical waveguides with integrated micromirrors for three-dimensional board-level optical interconnects,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 304–311, 2005.

Knickerbocker, J. U.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Kosugi, T.

T. Kosugi and T. Ishigure, “Polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores and its dispersion analysis,” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, pp. 15959–15968, 2009.

Kriezis, E. E.

S. Papaioannou, K. Vyrsokinos, O. Tsilipakos, A. Pitilakis, K. Hassan, J. Weeber, L. Markey, A. Dereux, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. Miliou, E. E. Kriezis, and N. Pleros, “A 320 Gb/s-throughput capable 2×2 silicon-plasmonic router architecture for optical interconnects,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3185–3195, 2011.

Kuchta, D.

D. Kuchtaet al., “64 Gb/s Transmission over 57 m MMF using an NRZ modulated 850 nm VCSEL,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, pp. 1–3.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Dev., 49, pp. 755–775, 2005.

D. M. Kuchtaet al., “A 56.1 Gb/s NRZ modulated 850 nm VCSEL-based optical link,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2013, pp. 1–3.

La, A.

E. Zgraggen, I. M. Soganci, F. Horst, A. La Porta, R. Dangel, B. J. Offrein, S. A. Snow, J. K. Young, B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, O. Scholder, R. Broennimann, U. Sennhauser, and G. L. Bona, “Laser direct writing of single-mode polysiloxane optical waveguides and devices,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 3036–3042, 2014.

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Landin, A.

D. W. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, and H. L. Davidson, “Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 614–623, 2003.

Larsson, A.

A. Larsson, “Advances in VCSELs for communication and sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1552–1567, 2011.

N. Bamiedakis, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, P. Westbergh, and A. Larsson, “25 Gb/s data transmission over a 1.4 m long multimode polymer spiral waveguide,” presented at theProc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics, San Jose, CA, USA, 2014, Paper STu1G.7.

Lee, B. G.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, L. How, C. Carver, H. Jianzhuang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating 360-Gb/s bidirectional 850 nm parallel optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Lehman, A. C.

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N. Bamiedakis, J. Chen, R. Penty, and I. White, “Bandwidth studies on multimode polymer waveguides for ≥ 25 Gb/s optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 2004–2007, 2014.

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