Abstract

This paper presents a systematic review of several digital signal processing (DSP)-enabled technologies recently proposed and demonstrated for high spectral efficiency (SE) 400 Gb/s–class and beyond optical networks. These include 1) a newly proposed SE-adaptable optical modulation technology—time-domain hybrid quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 2) two advanced transmitter side digital spectral shaping technologies—Nyquist signaling (for spectrally-efficient multiplexing) and digital pre-equalization (for improving tolerance toward channel narrowing effects), and 3) a newly proposed training-assisted two-stage carrier phase recovery algorithm that is designed to address the detrimental cyclic phase slipping problem with minimal training overhead. Additionally, this paper presents a novel DSP-based method for mitigation of equalizer-enhanced phase noise impairments. It is shown that performance degradation caused by the interaction between the long-memory chromatic dispersion compensating filter/equalizer and local oscillator laser phase noise can be effectively mitigated by replacing the commonly used fast single-tap phase-rotation-based equalizer (for typical carrier phase recovery) with a fast multi-tap linear equalizer. Finally, brief reviews of two high-SE 400 Gb/s-class WDM transmission experiments employing these advanced DSP algorithms are presented.

© 2014 IEEE

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2014 (1)

J. Leibrich, and W. Rosenkranz, “Multidimensional constellations for power efficient and flexible optical networks”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 753–756, 2014.

2013 (3)

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2621–2628, 2013.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. D. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.

2012 (2)

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

2011 (2)

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and M. Secondini, “Impact of phase noise and compensation techniques in coherent optical systems”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2790–2800, 2011.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

2010 (1)

X. Zhou, “An improved feed-forward carrier recovery algorithm for coherent receiver with M-QAM modulation format”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 1051–1053, 152010.

2009 (4)

C. Xie, “WDM coherent PDM-QPSK systems with and without inline optical dispersion compensation”, Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 4815–4823, 162009.

X. Zhou, and J. Yu, “Multi-level, multi-dimensional coding for high-speed and high spectral-efficiency optical transmission”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3641–3653, 2009.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M. Huang, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, and P. D. Magill, “400 Gb/s (4 × 100 Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040 km SMF-28”, Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 17928–17933, 2009.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 989–999, 152009.

2008 (1)

W. Shieh, and K. P. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing”, Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 15718–15727, 2008.

1994 (1)

T. Inoue, N Saitama, and G. Satoh, “An international digital SNG transmission system with variable information/FEC coding rate control”, IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf., pp. 93–99, 1994.

1986 (1)

F. M. Gardner, “A BPSK/QPSK timing-error detector for sampled receivers”, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-34, no. 5, pp. 423–429, 1986.

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi, and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission”, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. IT-29, no. 4, pp. 543–551, 1983.

Aono, Y.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Basch, B.

H. Sun, R. Egorov, B. Basch, J. McNicol, and K. T. Wu, “Comparison of two modulation formats at spectral efficiency of 5 bits/dual-pol symbol”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.3.

Batshon, H. G.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

Bayvel, P.

P. Bayvel, S. Kilmurray, and R. I. Killey, “Nonlinear transmission performance of digital Nyquist WDM and optical OFDM”, Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–4.

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Ben-Ezra, S.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Bergano, N.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

Bertran-Pardo, O.

R. Rios-Muller, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison between hybrid-QPSK/8QAM and 4D-32SP-16QAM formats at 31.2 GBaud using Nyquist pulse shaping”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.2.

Bigo, S.

R. Rios-Muller, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison between hybrid-QPSK/8QAM and 4D-32SP-16QAM formats at 31.2 GBaud using Nyquist pulse shaping”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.2.

Birk, M.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

Borel, P.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

Borel, P. I.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

Cai, J. X.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

Cardoso, P. P. G.

E. P. Silva, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. M. Diniz, J. R. Oliveira, V. B. Ribeiro, R. Silva, J. P. K. Perin, M. L. Silva, P. P. G. Cardoso, and J. Oliveira, “448 Gb/s dual-carrier PDM-RZ-16QAM on 75-GHz grid over 720 km with 10 flexi-grid ROADM passes”, presented at the Latin Amer. Opt. Photon. Conf., Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, 2012, Paper LM1C.3.

Carlson, K.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

Carvalho, L. H. H.

E. P. Silva, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. M. Diniz, J. R. Oliveira, V. B. Ribeiro, R. Silva, J. P. K. Perin, M. L. Silva, P. P. G. Cardoso, and J. Oliveira, “448 Gb/s dual-carrier PDM-RZ-16QAM on 75-GHz grid over 720 km with 10 flexi-grid ROADM passes”, presented at the Latin Amer. Opt. Photon. Conf., Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, 2012, Paper LM1C.3.

Chagnon, M.

Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2621–2628, 2013.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper PDP 2.2.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2010, Paper PDPC2.

Charlet, G.

R. Rios-Muller, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison between hybrid-QPSK/8QAM and 4D-32SP-16QAM formats at 31.2 GBaud using Nyquist pulse shaping”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.2.

Colavolpe, G.

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and M. Secondini, “Impact of phase noise and compensation techniques in coherent optical systems”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2790–2800, 2011.

Diniz, J. C. M.

E. P. Silva, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. M. Diniz, J. R. Oliveira, V. B. Ribeiro, R. Silva, J. P. K. Perin, M. L. Silva, P. P. G. Cardoso, and J. Oliveira, “448 Gb/s dual-carrier PDM-RZ-16QAM on 75-GHz grid over 720 km with 10 flexi-grid ROADM passes”, presented at the Latin Amer. Opt. Photon. Conf., Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, 2012, Paper LM1C.3.

Dou, L.

M. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, Y. Zhao, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Digital clock recovery algorithm for Nyquist signal”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2I.7.

Draving, S.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper PDP 2.2.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Egorov, R.

H. Sun, R. Egorov, B. Basch, J. McNicol, and K. T. Wu, “Comparison of two modulation formats at spectral efficiency of 5 bits/dual-pol symbol”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.3.

Evangelista, J.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper PDP 2.2.

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

Fini, J. F.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

Fishteyn, M.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

Foggi, T.

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and M. Secondini, “Impact of phase noise and compensation techniques in coherent optical systems”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2790–2800, 2011.

Forestieri, E.

G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and M. Secondini, “Impact of phase noise and compensation techniques in coherent optical systems”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 18, pp. 2790–2800, 2011.

Foursa, D.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

Freude, W.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Gardner, F. M.

F. M. Gardner, “A BPSK/QPSK timing-error detector for sampled receivers”, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-34, no. 5, pp. 423–429, 1986.

Ghazisaeidi, A.

R. Rios-Muller, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison between hybrid-QPSK/8QAM and 4D-32SP-16QAM formats at 31.2 GBaud using Nyquist pulse shaping”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.2.

Gnauck, A. H.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2010, Paper PDPC2.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper PDP 2.2.

Gonzalez, N. G.

N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, Y. Zhao, B. Mao, and N. G. Gonzalez, “Modified gardner phase detector for Nyquist coherent optical transmission systems”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper JTh2A.50.

Hillerkuss, D.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Ho, K. P.

W. Shieh, and K. P. Ho, “Equalization-enhanced phase noise for coherent-detection systems using electronic digital signal processing”, Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 20, pp. 15718–15727, 2008.

Hoffmann, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 989–999, 152009.

Hoshida, T.

M. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, Y. Zhao, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Digital clock recovery algorithm for Nyquist signal”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2I.7.

Huang, M.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M. Huang, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, and P. D. Magill, “400 Gb/s (4 × 100 Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040 km SMF-28”, Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 17928–17933, 2009.

Huang, M.-F.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Huang, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, N Saitama, and G. Satoh, “An international digital SNG transmission system with variable information/FEC coding rate control”, IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf., pp. 93–99, 1994.

Ip, E.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Isaac, R.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

Ishihara, K.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Ishihara, “Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.5.

Ji, P. N.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M. Huang, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, and P. D. Magill, “400 Gb/s (4 × 100 Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040 km SMF-28”, Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 17928–17933, 2009.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Killey, R. I.

P. Bayvel, S. Kilmurray, and R. I. Killey, “Nonlinear transmission performance of digital Nyquist WDM and optical OFDM”, Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–4.

Kilmurray, S.

P. Bayvel, S. Kilmurray, and R. I. Killey, “Nonlinear transmission performance of digital Nyquist WDM and optical OFDM”, Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2012, pp. 1–4.

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Ishihara, “Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.5.

Koos, C.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Leibrich, J.

J. Leibrich, and W. Rosenkranz, “Multidimensional constellations for power efficient and flexible optical networks”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 753–756, 2014.

Leuthold, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Li, L.

M. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, Y. Zhao, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Digital clock recovery algorithm for Nyquist signal”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2I.7.

Lingle, R.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2010, Paper PDPC2.

Ludwig, A.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Magill, P.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

Magill, P. D.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. D. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

J. Yu, X. Zhou, M. Huang, D. Qian, P. N. Ji, T. Wang, and P. D. Magill, “400 Gb/s (4 × 100 Gb/s) orthogonal PDM-RZ-QPSK DWDM signal transmission over 1040 km SMF-28”, Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 17928–17933, 2009.

Mao, B.

N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, Y. Zhao, B. Mao, and N. G. Gonzalez, “Modified gardner phase detector for Nyquist coherent optical transmission systems”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper JTh2A.50.

Matsuura, A.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Ishihara, “Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.5.

Mazurczyk, M.

M. Mazurczyk, “Spectral shaping for high spectral efficiency in long-haul optical transmission systems”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.1.D.1.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

McNicol, J.

H. Sun, R. Egorov, B. Basch, J. McNicol, and K. T. Wu, “Comparison of two modulation formats at spectral efficiency of 5 bits/dual-pol symbol”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.3.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Meyer, M.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Miyamoto, Y.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Ishihara, “Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.5.

Mohs, G.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

Morita, I.

W. R. Peng, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “Hybrid QAM transmission techniques for single-carrier ultra-dense WDM systems”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Jul. 2011, Paper 8D2–4.

H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “The impact of the combined 8-QAM and QPSK subcarrier modulation for coherent optical OFDM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA30.

H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “400-Gbit/s Optical OFDM Transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper Tu.3.C.1.

Morsy-Osman, M.

Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2621–2628, 2013.

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, M. Winter, M. Meyer, D. Hillerkuss, A. Ludwig, B. Nebendahl, S. Ben-Ezra, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time Nyquist pulse generation beyond 100 Gbit/s and its relation to OFDM”, Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 317–337, 2012.

Nelson, L. E.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, and P. D. Magill, “Rate-adaptable optics for next generation long-haul transport networks”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 41–49, 2013.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, X. Zhou, S. L. Woodward, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, J. F. Fini, and M. F. Yan, “Joint digital signal processing receivers for spatial superchannels”, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1957–1960, 2012.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

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T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 989–999, 152009.

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E. P. Silva, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. M. Diniz, J. R. Oliveira, V. B. Ribeiro, R. Silva, J. P. K. Perin, M. L. Silva, P. P. G. Cardoso, and J. Oliveira, “448 Gb/s dual-carrier PDM-RZ-16QAM on 75-GHz grid over 720 km with 10 flexi-grid ROADM passes”, presented at the Latin Amer. Opt. Photon. Conf., Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, 2012, Paper LM1C.3.

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X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “High spectral efciency 400 Gb/s transmission using PDM time-domain hybrid 32–64 QAM and training-assisted carrier recovery”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 999–1005, 1, 2013.

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. E. Nelson, P. D. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, and R. Lingle, “64-Tb/s, 8 b/s/Hz, PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital signal processing”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 571–577, 152011.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

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X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

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T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noé, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feed-forward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 989–999, 152009.

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H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

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Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2621–2628, 2013.

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Q. Zhuge, X. Xu, M. Morsy-Osman, M. Chagnon, M. Qiu, and D. Plant, “Spectral efficiency-adaptive optical transmission using time domain hybrid QAM for agile optical networks”, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2621–2628, 2013.

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X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

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X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2010, Paper PDPC2.

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J. Wang, C. Xie, and Z. Pan, “Reducing equalizer complexity in coherent receivers for Nyquist spectrally shaped systems with matched filters”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2I.3.

M. Yan, Z. Tao, L. Dou, L. Li, Y. Zhao, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Digital clock recovery algorithm for Nyquist signal”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2I.7.

N. Stojanovic, C. Xie, Y. Zhao, B. Mao, and N. G. Gonzalez, “Modified gardner phase detector for Nyquist coherent optical transmission systems”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper JTh2A.50.

X. Zhou, and Y. Sun, “Low-complexity, blind phase recovery for coherent receivers using QAM modulation”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper OMJ3.

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R. Rios-Muller, J. Renaudier, O. Bertran-Pardo, A. Ghazisaeidi, P. Tran, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Experimental comparison between hybrid-QPSK/8QAM and 4D-32SP-16QAM formats at 31.2 GBaud using Nyquist pulse shaping”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.2.

H. Sun, R. Egorov, B. Basch, J. McNicol, and K. T. Wu, “Comparison of two modulation formats at spectral efficiency of 5 bits/dual-pol symbol”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., London, U.K., Sep. 2013, Paper Th.2.D.3.

H. Takahashi, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “The impact of the combined 8-QAM and QPSK subcarrier modulation for coherent optical OFDM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA30.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, B. Zhu, A. H. Gnauck, and D. W. Peckham, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-Grid ROADMs,” presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, Mar. 2010, Paper PDPC2.

M. Mazurczyk, “Spectral shaping for high spectral efficiency in long-haul optical transmission systems”, presented at the Euro. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Sep. 2013, Paper Th.1.D.1.

Y.-K. Huang, E. Ip, M.-F. Huang, B. Zhu, P. N. Ji, Y. Shao, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, Y. Aono, T. Tajima, and T. Wang, “10×456-Gb/s DP-16QAM transmission over 8×100 km of ULAF using coherent detection with a 30-GHz Analog-to-Digital Converter”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Sapporo, Japan, Jul. 2010, Paper PDP3.

P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, S. Chandrasekhar, S. Draving, J. Evangelista, and B. Zhu, “Generation and 1,200-km transmission of 448-Gb/s ETDM 56-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM using a single I/Q modulator”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper PDP 2.2.

T. Kobayashi, A. Sano, A. Matsuura, Y. Miyamoto, and K. Ishihara, “Nonlinear tolerant long-haul WDM transmission over 1200 km using 538 Gb/s/ch PDM-64QAM SC-FDM signals with pilot tone”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.5.

H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “400-Gbit/s Optical OFDM Transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid”, presented at the Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Torino, Italy, Sep. 2010, Paper Tu.3.C.1.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “8×450-Gb/s, 50-GHz-spaced, PDM-32QAM transmission over 400 km and one 50 GHz-grid ROADM”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper PDPB3.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “1200 km transmission of 50 GHz spaced, 5×504-Gb/s PDM-32–64 hybrid QAM using electrical and optical spectral shaping”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2012, Paper OM2A.2.

X. Zhou, L. E. Nelson, P. Magill, R. Isaac, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, P. Borel, and K. Carlson, “12,000 km transmission of 100 GHz spaced, 8×495-Gb/s PDM time-domain hybrid QPSK-8QAM signals”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper OTu2B.4.

E. P. Silva, L. H. H. Carvalho, J. C. M. Diniz, J. R. Oliveira, V. B. Ribeiro, R. Silva, J. P. K. Perin, M. L. Silva, P. P. G. Cardoso, and J. Oliveira, “448 Gb/s dual-carrier PDM-RZ-16QAM on 75-GHz grid over 720 km with 10 flexi-grid ROADM passes”, presented at the Latin Amer. Opt. Photon. Conf., Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, 2012, Paper LM1C.3.

H. Zhang, J. X. Cai, H. G. Batshon, M. Mazurczyk, O. Sinkin, D. Foursa, Al. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Bergano, “200 Gb/s and dual-wavelength 400 Gb/s transmission over transpacific distance at 6 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency”, presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Expo./Nat. Fiber Opt. Eng. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 2013, Paper PDP5A.6.

W. R. Peng, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “Hybrid QAM transmission techniques for single-carrier ultra-dense WDM systems”, presented at the OptoElectron. Commun. Conf., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Jul. 2011, Paper 8D2–4.

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