Abstract

The interconnection of waveguides inside a silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) is demonstrated both two- and three-dimensionally by using a femtosecond laser. The waveguides written with a femtosecond laser can be successfully connected to waveguides inside a PLC with low loss. Unlike previous work on the direct writing of 2-D and 3-D waveguides in bulk glass, the waveguide must be written a few tens of micrometers beneath the surface of a PLC composed of multilayers of different glasses. To realize a low-loss waveguide, we studied the sensitivity difference for femtosecond pulses in each layer in detail and developed a multiple-scanning technique with a femtosecond laser for writing waveguides. In addition, we investigated a mode-field (MF) diameter control technique to allow us to achieve the low-loss interconnection of PLC and written waveguides. We also studied particular problems caused by nonlinear optical effects, such as the positional displacement of written waveguides from the focal point. As a result, we achieved a low-loss waveguide with almost the same MF diameter as a PLC waveguide and performed the first demonstration of interconnection between PLC waveguides. The excess losses at 1550 nm were 1.4 and 2.3 dB for 2-D and 3-D interconnection, respectively.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription