Three-dimensional (3D) refractive-index (RI) imaging and quantitative analyses of angiosperm pollen grains are presented. Using optical diffraction tomography, the 3D RI structures of individual angiosperm pollen grains were measured without using labeling or other preparation techniques. Various physical quantities including volume, surface area, exine volume, and sphericity were determined from the measured RI tomograms of pollen grains. Exine skeletons, the distinct internal structures of angiosperm pollen grains, were identified and systematically analyzed.
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