Abstract

Uniform bottom-emitting 20×20 Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays bonded to sapphire have been realized. The average external quantum efficiency ηex is 42.2% with the standard deviation 2.6% and average threshold current Ith is 491µA with the standard deviation 116 µA.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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