Abstract

Liquid surface patterns are used for the first time in random phase mask optical image encryption. Time-dependence from the liquid surface patterns can potentially remove known-plaintext attack vulnerabilities. Simulations were conducted to investigate the security of such a system. The system is shown to maintain the maximum entropy in the encrypted images without leaving a significant correlation with the liquid surface patterns. Significant error between recovered and plaintext images when a mismatched liquid surface pattern is used for decryption demonstrates the ability of the liquid system to vary the encryption and decryption of images with a tunable surface.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2017 (1)

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (3)

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Nakano, M. Takeda, H. Suzuki, and M. Yamaguchi, “Security analysis of phase-only DRPE based on known-plaintext attack using multiple known plaintext-ciphertext pairs,” Appl. Opt. 53(28), 6435–6443 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (3)

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. S. ten Have and G. Vdovin, “Characterization and closed-loop performance of a liquid mirror adaptive optical system,” Appl. Opt. 51(12), 2155–2163 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Qin and X. Peng, “Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 118–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

P. Kumar, A. Kumar, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Impulse attack free double-random-phase encryption scheme with randomized lens-phase functions,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 331–333 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir 25(11), 6162–6167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. E. Hwang, H. T. Chang, and W. N. Lie, “Multiple-image encryption and multiplexing using a modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and phase modulation in Fresnel-transform domain,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3917–3919 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Luis, “Coherence, polarization, and entanglement for classical light fields,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3665–3670 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Oh, S. H. Ko, and K. H. Kang, “Shape oscillation of a drop in AC electrowetting,” Langmuir 24(15), 8379–8386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33(6), 1752–1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Abril, H. C.

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alfalou, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, D. W.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrera, J. F.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berge, B.

M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir 25(11), 6162–6167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Berge, “Liquid lens technology: principle of electrowetting based lenses and applications to imaging,” in 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 227–230.
[Crossref]

Bindiganavale, S.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bociort, F.

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bright, V. M.

Brosseau, C.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carnicer, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Castro, A.

Chang, F.-C.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. T.

Chen, J.-K.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiang, T.-J.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-P.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.-W.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.-K.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, G.-H.

Frauel, Y.

Giacobino, E.

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

Guo, C.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, W.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Wu, W. He, M. Liao, C. Zhang, and X. Peng, “Vulnerability to ciphertext-only attack of optical encryption scheme based on double random phase encoding,” Opt. Express 23(15), 18955–18968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33(6), 1752–1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. E.

Javidi, B.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Frauel, A. Castro, T. J. Naughton, and B. Javidi, “Resistance of the double random phase encryption against various attacks,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10253–10265 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi, N. Towghi, N. Maghzi, and S. C. Verrall, “Error-reduction techniques and error analysis for fully phase- and amplitude-based encryption,” Appl. Opt. 39(23), 4117–4130 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Towghi, B. Javidi, and Z. Luo, “Fully phase encrypted image processor,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1915–1927 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi, G. Zhang, and J. Li, “Encrypted optical memory using double-random phase encoding,” Appl. Opt. 36(5), 1054–1058 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33(6), 1752–1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Joseph, J.

Juvells, I.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, K. H.

J. M. Oh, S. H. Ko, and K. H. Kang, “Shape oscillation of a drop in AC electrowetting,” Langmuir 24(15), 8379–8386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, F.-H.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ko, S. H.

J. M. Oh, S. H. Ko, and K. H. Kang, “Shape oscillation of a drop in AC electrowetting,” Langmuir 24(15), 8379–8386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

Kumar, P.

Kuo, S.-W.

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lancis, J.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Legrand, J.

M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir 25(11), 6162–6167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Liao, M.

Lie, W. N.

Liu, J.-H.

Liu, S.

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Luis, A.

A. Luis, “Coherence, polarization, and entanglement for classical light fields,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3665–3670 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Maghzi, N.

Maillard, M.

M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir 25(11), 6162–6167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markman, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, C.

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matoba, O.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, T.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Millan, M. S.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

Millán, M. S.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moon, H.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nakano, K.

Nanayakkara, Y. S.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naruse, M.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Naughton, T. J.

Nishchal, N. K.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nomura, T.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Javidi and T. Nomura, “Securing information by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 28–30 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, J. M.

J. M. Oh, S. H. Ko, and K. H. Kang, “Shape oscillation of a drop in AC electrowetting,” Langmuir 24(15), 8379–8386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, X.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Wu, W. He, M. Liao, C. Zhang, and X. Peng, “Vulnerability to ciphertext-only attack of optical encryption scheme based on double random phase encoding,” Opt. Express 23(15), 18955–18968 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Qin and X. Peng, “Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 118–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perera, S.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez-Cabre, E.

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Cabré, E.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pinkse, P. W. H.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pohit, M.

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, “A polarization encoded optical encryption system using ferroelectric spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 25–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

Qin, W.

Rivenson, Y.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roath, C.

Shao, Y.

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sheridan, J. T.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stern, A.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strauch, M.

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, H.

Tajahuerce, E.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

Tao, R.

ten Have, E. S.

Terrab, S.

Töppel, F.

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Torroba, R.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Towghi, N.

Unnikrishnan, G.

G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical encryption by double-random phase encoding in the fractional Fourier domain,” Opt. Lett. 25(12), 887–889 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, “A polarization encoded optical encryption system using ferroelectric spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 25–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

Urbach, H. P.

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vdovin, G.

Verrall, S. C.

Wang, Y.

Wanigasekara, E.

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, A. M.

Wu, J.

Xin, Y.

Yamaguchi, M.

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Nakano, M. Takeda, H. Suzuki, and M. Yamaguchi, “Security analysis of phase-only DRPE based on known-plaintext attack using multiple known plaintext-ciphertext pairs,” Appl. Opt. 53(28), 6435–6443 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, G.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

Y. S. Nanayakkara, S. Perera, S. Bindiganavale, E. Wanigasekara, H. Moon, and D. W. Armstrong, “The effect of AC frequency on the electrowetting behavior of ionic liquids,” Anal. Chem. 82(8), 3146–3154 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Strauch, Y. Shao, F. Bociort, and H. P. Urbach, “Study of surface modes on a vibrating electrowetting liquid lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(17), 171106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. (1)

C.-P. Chiu, T.-J. Chiang, J.-K. Chen, F.-C. Chang, F.-H. Ko, C.-W. Chu, S.-W. Kuo, and S.-K. Fan, “Liquid lenses and driving mechanisms: a review,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 26(12-17), 1–16 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

B. Javidi, A. Carnicer, M. Yamaguchi, T. Nomura, E. Pérez-Cabré, M. S. Millán, N. K. Nishchal, R. Torroba, J. F. Barrera, W. He, X. Peng, A. Stern, Y. Rivenson, A. Alfalou, C. Brosseau, C. Guo, J. T. Sheridan, G. Situ, M. Naruse, T. Matsumoto, I. Juvells, E. Tajahuerce, J. Lancis, W. Chen, X. Chen, P. W. H. Pinkse, A. P. Mosk, and A. Markman, “Roadmap on optical security,” J. Opt. 18(8), 083001 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Pérez-Cabré, H. C. Abril, M. S. Millán, and B. Javidi, “Photon-counting double-random-phase encoding for secure image verification and retrieval,” J. Opt. 14(9), 094001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Langmuir (2)

M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir 25(11), 6162–6167 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Oh, S. H. Ko, and K. H. Kang, “Shape oscillation of a drop in AC electrowetting,” Langmuir 24(15), 8379–8386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, C. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16(7), 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Luis, “Coherence, polarization, and entanglement for classical light fields,” Opt. Commun. 282(18), 3665–3670 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Liu and J. T. Sheridan, “Optical encryption by combining image scrambling techniques in fractional fourier domains,” Opt. Commun. 287, 73–80 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Unnikrishnan, M. Pohit, and K. Singh, “A polarization encoded optical encryption system using ferroelectric spatial light modulator,” Opt. Commun. 185(1-3), 25–31 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, “Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification,” Opt. Eng. 33(6), 1752–1756 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (1)

O. Matoba, T. Nomura, E. Perez-Cabre, M. S. Millan, and B. Javidi, “Optical techniques for information security,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1128–1148 (2009).
[Crossref]

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U. Schnars, C. Falldorf, J. Watson, and W. Jüptner, “Digital holography,” in Digital Holography and Wavefront Sensing (Springer, 2015), pp. 39–68.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, 2013).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd ed. (Roberts & Co, 2005).

R. A. Ibrahim, Liquid Sloshing Dynamics: Theory and Applications, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

B. Berge, “Liquid lens technology: principle of electrowetting based lenses and applications to imaging,” in 18th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2005 (IEEE, 2005), pp. 227–230.
[Crossref]

Matlab, “The Mathworks, Inc.” (2017).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A modified double random phase mask encryption system with a tunable liquid lens. The liquid system has an oscillating convex surface, making it also the first lens L1. The red area is the light propagating through the system, while the yellow boxed area contains the cryptographic keys. The system includes lens L2, and phase masks D1 and D2. (b) The liquid system used for this study, with two immiscible liquids of differing refractive indices n1 and n2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Top view of liquid surface mode shapes with (top) axis symmetric motion (m = 0) and (bottom) asymmetric motion (m = 1), with mode numbers n=2,10,20. (b) isometric projection of random liquid surface profile (along radial direction) with exaggerated vertical scale.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The encryption and decryption of a quick response (QR) code at discrete times with an oscillating liquid lens system and two random phase masks. The CMOS camera is shown recording a typical encrypted image intensity, which is shown to the right for a single pixel over time. The blue shaded region in the intensity plot is the recorded encrypted image integrated over exposure timeτ, while the red region is the intensity of encrypted image of interest E s that is used for decryption.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The phase values at the centerline of (top) an encrypted image using the liquid system and the random phase masks, and (bottom) the relevant liquid profile. A correlation coefficient is calculated using these two data series for each liquid surface mode number n.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Entropy of phase and intensity (int.) of encrypted images for axis symmetric and asymmetric liquid surface mode shapes of mode number n. Encrypted images taken at an instant of time t=0(inst.) and exposed over a full liquid surface oscillation period (exposed) were used.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The (a) mean and (b) variance of the correlation coefficient for n=2,3,,30, calculated between centerlines of recovered phase images and the original plaintext phase image. Both the liquid system and the two random phase masks were used for the data series “Phase” and “Exposed”, while only one random phase mask was used for data series labeled “One Mask”. No random phase masks were used for series “No Masks”.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The mean squared error (MSE) when comparing the phase of recovered images and the original QR code phase image when different liquid surface mode shapes are used for decryption (mismatched liquid surfaces). (b) The original QR code used for the simulations. Recovered phase images for (c) a mismatched liquid surface, (d) A mistiming of the liquid system used during decryption of 1/10 liquid oscillation period and (e) for correct timing but one incorrect random phase mask.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The mean squared error (MSE) when comparing the phase of recovered images and the original QR code phase image when noise is added to the encrypted image phase and there is error with varying standard deviation in the (a) amplitude of the liquid oscillations, or (b) the horizontal positioning of the liquid system. Recovered phase images with Gaussian error in the encrypted image σ γ =π/10, and amplitude error η=0.05for (c) an instantaneous encryption and (d) exposed encryption. Recovered phase images with Gaussian error in the encrypted image σ γ =π/10, and amplitude error δ=4pixels for (e) instantaneous encryption and (f) exposed encryption.

Equations (22)

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Δ l (x,y,t) = w ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2R +h(x,y,t),
t l (x,y,t) = exp(jkφ)exp[jkh(x,y,t)( n 1 n 2 )]exp[jk x 2 +y 2 2R ( n 1 n 2 )],
h mn (r,θ,t)= A mn cos(mθ) J m ( ω mn c r)cos( ω mn t),
U( x f , y f ,t) = 1 jλf exp[ jk( n 3 n 2 ) 2f ( x f 2 + y f 2 )] F(x,y,t)exp(-j k f (x x f +y y f ))dxdy ,
F(x,y,t) = I(x,y)D1(x,y) exp[jkh(x,y,t)( n 2 n 3 )].
S( x f , y f ,t)=U( x f , y f ,t)exp[-jπλf( x f 2 + y f 2 )].
S( x f , y f ,t) = F(x,y,t)exp(-j k f (x x f +y y f ))dxdy ,
E(x,y,t) = S( x f , y f ,t) · D2( x f , y f )exp(j k f (x x f +y y f ))d x f d y f .
R(x,y,t)=W(x,y,t)exp[jk h * (x,y,t)( n 2 n 3 )]D4(x,y),
W(x,y,t) = Q( x f , y f ,t) · D3( x f , y f )exp(j k f (x x f +y y f ))d x f d y f ,
Q( x f , y f ,t) = E(x,y,t) exp(-j k f ( x r x f + y r y f )dxdy .
E rc (x,y, t 0 ,τ)= t 0 t 0 +τ |E(x,y,t)+ E rb (x,y) | 2 dt .
E rc (q,v, t 0 ,K)= Δt 2 k=1 K [E(q,v, t 0 +kΔt)+E(q,v, t 0 +(k1)Δt)]+ΔtK E rb (q,v) .
E rc (q,v, t 0 ,K)(E(q,v, t 0 )+ E rb (q,v)) (E(q,v, t 0 )+ E rb (q,v)) * ΔtK
Δt E s (q,v) E rc KΔt E rb (q,v)Δt k=1 K1 [E(q,v, t 0 +kΔt)+E(q,v, t 0 +(k+1)Δt)] .
λ 2 |cos( ω 0n (τ+ t 0 ))cos( ω 0n t 0 )| λ 10 .
Entropy= i=1 256 p( α i ) log 2 p( α i ) ,
ρ= C uv σ u σ v ,
MSE= 1 QV q Q v V | R p (q,v,t)P(q,v) | 2 .
h e (x,y,t)=h(x,y,t)(1+η),
h e (x,y,t)=h(x,yδ,t).
E e (x,y,t)=E(x,y,t)exp[jγ(x,y)]

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