Abstract

Quantum resources can enhance the sensitivity of a device beyond the classical shot noise limit and, as a result, revolutionize the field of metrology through the development of quantum-enhanced sensors. In particular, plasmonic sensors, which are widely used in biological and chemical sensing applications, offer a unique opportunity to bring such an enhancement to real-life devices. Here, we use bright entangled twin beams to enhance the sensitivity of a plasmonic sensor used to measure local changes in the refractive index. We demonstrate a 56% quantum enhancement in the sensitivity of a state-of-the-art plasmonic sensor when compared with the corresponding classical configuration and a 24% quantum enhancement when compared to an optimal single-beam classical configuration. We measure sensitivities on the order of 1010  RIU/Hz, nearly 5 orders of magnitude better than previous proof-of-principle implementations of quantum-enhanced plasmonic sensors. These results promise significant enhancements in ultratrace label-free plasmonic sensing and will find their way into areas ranging from biomedical applications to chemical detection.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taylor and W. P. Bowen, “Quantum metrology and its application in biology,” Phys. Rep. 615, 1–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Marino, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3, 985–988 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 8–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, “Quantum plasmonic sensing,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. A. Kalashnikov, Z. Pan, A. I. Kuznetsov, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Quantum spectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011049 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Baffou and R. Quidant, “Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 171–187 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, “Extraordinary optical transmission of multimode quantum correlations via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. T. Turnbull, P. G. Petrov, C. S. Embrey, A. M. Marino, and V. Boyer, “Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033845 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

X. Wang, M. Jefferson, P. C. D. Hobbs, W. P. Risk, B. E. Feller, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Shot-noise limited detection for surface plasmon sensing,” Opt. Express 19, 107–117 (2011).
[Crossref]

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, “A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit,” Nat. Phys. 7, 962–965 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049–1057 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. Giovanndetti, S. Lloyd, and M. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit,” Science 306, 1330–1336 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Altewischer, M. V. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. Grangier, R. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Slusher, L. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. Mertz, and J. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

D. F. Walls, “Squeezed states of light,” Nature 306, 141–146 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[Crossref]

Altewischer, E.

E. Altewischer, M. V. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bachor, H.-A.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baffou, G.

G. Baffou and R. Quidant, “Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 171–187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baida, F. I.

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berchera, I. R.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. P.

M. A. Taylor and W. P. Bowen, “Quantum metrology and its application in biology,” Phys. Rep. 615, 1–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boyer, V.

M. T. Turnbull, P. G. Petrov, C. S. Embrey, A. M. Marino, and V. Boyer, “Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033845 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 227–230 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049–1057 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, “Quantum-mechanical noise in an interferometer,” Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693–1708 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chena, P.

L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choa, N.-J.

L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Danzmann, K.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Daria, V.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davidson, R.

Dickson, W.

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dieleman, F.

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dowran, M.

Duyne, R. P. V.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Embrey, C. S.

M. T. Turnbull, P. G. Petrov, C. S. Embrey, A. M. Marino, and V. Boyer, “Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Erni, D.

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Evans, P. G.

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, “Extraordinary optical transmission of multimode quantum correlations via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Exter, M. V.

E. Altewischer, M. V. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Plasmon-assisted transmission of entangled photons,” Nature 418, 304–306 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fabre, C.

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, “Quantum plasmonic sensing,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fasel, S.

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feller, B. E.

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
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García-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
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G. Brida, M. Genovese, and I. R. Berchera, “Experimental realization of sub-shot-noise quantum imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4, 227–230 (2010).
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T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
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V. Giovanndetti, S. Lloyd, and M. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit,” Science 306, 1330–1336 (2004).
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S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
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R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049–1057 (2008).
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P. Grangier, R. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gray, M. B.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gray, S. K.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grosse, N.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
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Guoa, L.

L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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Hage, B.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
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Hobbs, P. C. D.

Hollberg, L.

R. Slusher, L. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. Mertz, and J. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
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Homola, J.

M. Piliarik and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors: approaching their limits?” Opt. Express 17, 16505–16517 (2009).
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J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108, 462–493 (2008).
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J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
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J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
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K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
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L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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Janousek, J.

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
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Jayanti, S. V.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
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Jefferson, M.

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
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D. A. Kalashnikov, Z. Pan, A. I. Kuznetsov, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Quantum spectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011049 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049–1057 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

L. Guoa, J. A. Jackmanb, H.-H. Yang, P. Chena, N.-J. Choa, and D.-H. Kim, “Strategies for enhancing the sensitivity of plasmonic nanosensors,” Nano Today 10(2), 213–239 (2015).
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M. Xiao, L. A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, “Precision measurement beyond the shot-noise limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278–281 (1987).
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M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knoesen, A.

Kress, S. J. P.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
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D. A. Kalashnikov, Z. Pan, A. I. Kuznetsov, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Quantum spectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011049 (2014).
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Kuznetsov, A. I.

D. A. Kalashnikov, Z. Pan, A. I. Kuznetsov, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Quantum spectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011049 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lam, P. K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lawrie, B.

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 8–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawrie, B. J.

M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Marino, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3, 985–988 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, “Quantum plasmonic sensing,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, “Extraordinary optical transmission of multimode quantum correlations via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-S.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-G.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-Y.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lett, P. D.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, S.

V. Giovanndetti, S. Lloyd, and M. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit,” Science 306, 1330–1336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Maccone, M.

V. Giovanndetti, S. Lloyd, and M. Maccone, “Quantum-enhanced measurements: beating the standard quantum limit,” Science 306, 1330–1336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marino, A. M.

M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Marino, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3, 985–988 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. T. Turnbull, P. G. Petrov, C. S. Embrey, A. M. Marino, and V. Boyer, “Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033845 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. Boyer, A. M. Marino, and P. D. Lett, “Generation of spatially broadband twin beams for quantum imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 143601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martín-Moreno, L.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

McClelland, D. E.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

McCormick, C. F.

C. F. McCormick, A. M. Marino, V. Boyer, and P. D. Lett, “Strong low-frequency quantum correlations from a four-wave-mixing amplifier,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043816 (2008).
[Crossref]

McKenzie, K.

K. McKenzie, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, S. E. Whitcomb, M. B. Gray, D. E. McClelland, and P. K. Lam, “Squeezing in the audio gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 161105 (2004).
[Crossref]

McPeak, K. M.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

McPhillips, J.

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mertz, J.

R. Slusher, L. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. Mertz, and J. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref]

Meyer, S.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. D.

Moreno, E.

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murphy, A.

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

D. A. Kalashnikov, Z. Pan, A. I. Kuznetsov, and L. A. Krivitsky, “Quantum spectroscopy of plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 011049 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petrov, P. G.

M. T. Turnbull, P. G. Petrov, C. S. Embrey, A. M. Marino, and V. Boyer, “Role of the phase-matching condition in nondegenerate four-wave mixing in hot vapors for the generation of squeezed states of light,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 033845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Piliarik, M.

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pollard, R. J.

V. V. Yakovlev, W. Dickson, A. Murphy, J. McPhillips, R. J. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Ultrasensitive non-resonant detection of ultrasound with plasmonic metamaterials,” Adv. Mater. 25, 2351–2356 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pooser, R. C.

M. W. Holtfrerich, M. Dowran, R. Davidson, B. J. Lawrie, R. C. Pooser, and A. M. Marino, “Toward quantum plasmonic networks,” Optica 3, 985–988 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Fan, B. J. Lawrie, and R. C. Pooser, “Quantum plasmonic sensing,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 053812 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. C. Pooser and B. Lawrie, “Plasmonic trace sensing below the photon shot noise limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 8–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Lawrie, P. G. Evans, and R. C. Pooser, “Extraordinary optical transmission of multimode quantum correlations via localized surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 156802 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poujet, Y.

Quidant, R.

G. Baffou and R. Quidant, “Thermo-plasmonics: using metallic nanostructures as nano-sources of heat,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 171–187 (2013).
[Crossref]

Risk, W. P.

Robin, F.

S. Fasel, F. Robin, E. Moreno, D. Erni, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Energy-time entanglement preservation in plasmon-assisted light transmission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 110501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rossinelli, A.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photon. 2, 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

Salvi, J.

Schnabel, R.

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “Coherent control of vacuum squeezing in the gravitational-wave detection band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 011101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9, 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7, 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sinton, D.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, “A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission,” Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049–1057 (2008).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R.

P. Grangier, R. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. Slusher, L. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. Mertz, and J. Valley, “Observation of squeezed states generated by four-wave mixing in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409–2412 (1985).
[Crossref]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tame, M.

J.-S. Lee, T. Huynh, S.-Y. Lee, K.-G. Lee, J. Lee, M. Tame, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Quantum noise reduction in intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 033833 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, F. Dieleman, J. Lee, C. Rockstuhl, S. A. Maier, and M. Tame, “Quantum plasmonic sensing: beyond the shot-noise and diffraction limit,” ACS Photon. 3, 992–999 (2016).
[Crossref]

Taylor, M. A.

M. A. Taylor and W. P. Bowen, “Quantum metrology and its application in biology,” Phys. Rep. 615, 1–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. A. Taylor, J. Janousek, V. Daria, J. Knittel, B. Hage, H.-A. Bachor, and W. P. Bowen, “Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit,” Nat. Photonics 7, 229–233 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thio, T.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114–1117 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Nanostructured plasmonic sensors,” Chem. Rev. 108, 494–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Treps, N.

N. Treps, N. Grosse, W. P. Bowen, C. Fabre, H.-A. Bachor, and P. K. Lam, “A quantum laser pointer,” Science 301, 940–943 (2003).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, M. T.

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Details on calibration, data taking and analysis, expected quantum sensitivity enhancement, and sensitivity order of magnitude estimation.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setup. One of the twin beams (probe) generated with a four-wave mixing process is sent through a plasmonic sensor inside a chamber, while the other one (conjugate) acts as a reference for intensity difference noise measurements. The setup is used to detect small changes in the refractive index of air with a sensitivity below the shot noise limit. Inset: double-Λ energy level scheme on which the FWM process is based. BD, beam dump; SA, spectrum analyzer; FG, function generator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Plasmonic structure used as sensor. (a) and (b) are scanning electron microscope images of the triangular nano-hole array used as the plasmonic sensor. (c) Transmission spectrum of the plasmonic structure measured with a white light source. At the probing wavelength of 795 nm, the EOT is 66%.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Enhancement of SNR with twin beams. (a) Measured power spectra when probing the sensor with coherent states, trace (i), and with twin beams, trace (ii), for a modulation of the air refractive index of 1.6×107  RIU. (b) Measured power spectra when the modulation is reduced to 8.2×109 RIU. In this case, the signal is hidden in the noise when probing with coherent states, trace (i), while it can be resolved when probing with the twin beams, trace (ii). Settings for the spectrum analyzer: resolution bandwidth (RBW) = 10 Hz, video bandwidth (VBW) = 1 Hz, center frequency = 199 kHz, span = 2 kHz. All traces are averaged 50 times.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Sensitivity enhancement of plasmonic sensor with quantum resources. (a) Measured signal while linearly ramping the driving voltage of the ultrasonic transducer, i.e., increasing the change of refractive index of air (Δn), when probing with coherent states, trace (i), and with twin beams, trace (ii). The baseline noise for both cases is given by the horizontal traces and was measured by turning off the modulation. All traces are averaged 50 times. Settings for the spectrum analyzer: RBW=100 Hz, VBW=10 Hz, zero span, center frequency = 199 kHz, and sweep time = 10 s. (b) Comparison of the SNR when probing the plasmonic sensor with coherent states, trace (i), and with twin beams, trace (ii). A linear fit is used for the calculated SNR. A 99% confidence bound is used to determine when the signal can be distinguished from the noise and to estimate Δnmin. (c) Comparison with the optimal classical single coherent-state configuration. SNR when probing with twin beams, trace (ii), and with a balanced configuration with two coherent states, each with the same power as the probe, trace (i). Trace (iii) gives the estimated SNR for the single coherent-state configuration.

Equations (1)

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Δnmin=1N1|T/n|(ΔI)2|I/T|,