Abstract

A reconfigurable metasurface made of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material was experimentally demonstrated in the 1.55 μm wavelength range. A nanostructured Ge2Sb2Te5 film on fused silica substrate was optimized to switch from highly transmissive (80%) to highly absorptive (76%) modes with a 7:1 contrast ratio in transmission independent of polarization, when thermally transformed from the amorphous to crystalline state. The metasurface was designed using a genetic algorithm optimizer linked with an efficient full-wave electromagnetic solver.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (4)

H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, M. V. Rybin, A. A. Kuchmizhak, S. Joudkazis, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Raeis-Hosseini and J. Rho, “Metasurfaces based on phase-change material as a reconfigurable platform for multifunctional devices,” Materials (Basel) 10(9), 1046 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(11), 1600106 (2016).

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kaes and M. Salinga, “Impact of defect occupation on conduction in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5.,” Sci. Rep. 6(8), 31699 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Urbas, J. Jacob, L. D. Negro, N. Engheta, A. D. Boardman, P. Egan, A. B. Khanikaev, V. Menon, M. Ferrera, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, J. Valentine, C. Pfeiffer, A. Grbic, E. Narimanov, L. Zhu, S. Fan, A. Alù, E. Poutrina, N. M. Litchinitser, M. A. Noginov, K. F. MacDonald, E. Plum, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, D. A. Pawlak, I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, and D. Chanda, “Roadmap on optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

G. Oliveri, D. H. Werner, and A. Massa, “Reconfigurable electromagnetics through metamaterials - A review,” Proc. IEEE 103(7), 1034–1056 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Fast tuning of double Fano resonance using a phase-change metamaterial under low power intensity,” Sci. Rep. 4(3), 4463 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (2)

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Mid-infrared tunable polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(6), 1580–1585 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Sosso, S. C. Caravati, R. Mazzarello, and M. Bernasconi, “Raman spectra of cubic and amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 from first principle,” Phys. Rev. B 83(13), 134201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. Richardson, J. Turpin, A. Pogrebnyakov, J. D. Musgraves, J. A. Bossard, H. J. Shin, R. Muise, S. Rogers, and J. D. Johnson, “Adaptive phase change metamaterials for infrared aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 8165, 1–9 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (8)

T. Driscoll, S. Palit, M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, F. Keilmann, B.-G. Chae, S.-J. Yun, H.-T. Kim, S. Y. Cho, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and D. N. Basov, “Dynamic tuning of an infrared hybrid-metamaterial resonance using vanadium dioxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 024101 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bossard, X. Liang, L. Li, S. Yun, D. H. Werner, B. Weiner, T. S. Mayer, P. L. Cristman, A. Diaz, and I. C. Khoo, “Tunable frequency selective surfaces and negative-zero-positive index metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(5), 1308–1320 (2008).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kwon, X. Wang, Z. Bayraktar, B. Weiner, and D. H. Werner, “Near-infrared metamaterial films with reconfigurable transmissive/reflective properties,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, “Superlenses to overcome the diffraction limit,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 435–441 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Transformation optical designs for wave collimators, flat lenses and right-angle bends,” New J. Phys. 10(11), 115023 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hegedüs and S. R. Elliott, “Microscopic origin of the fast crystallization ability of Ge-Sb-Te phase-change memory materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 399–405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 143122 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I. C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3342–3347 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wełnic, A. Pamungkas, R. Detemple, C. Steimer, S. Blügel, and M. Wuttig, “Unravelling the interplay of local structure and physical properties in phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 56–62 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. Chen, I. An, G. M. Ferreira, N. J. Podraza, J. A. Zapien, and R. W. Collins, “Multichannel Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on the dual rotating compensator principle,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 14–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kolobov, P. Fons, A. I. Frenkel, A. L. Ankudinov, J. Tominaga, and T. Uruga, “Understanding the phase-change mechanism of rewritable optical media,” Nat. Mater. 3(10), 703–708 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. E. Raynolds, B. A. Munk, J. B. Pryor, and R. J. Marhefka, “Ohmic loss in frequency-selective surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5346–5358 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

I. Friedrich, V. Weidenhof, W. Njoroge, P. Franz, and M. Wuttig, “Structural transformations of Ge2Sb2Te5 films studied by electrical resistance measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(9), 4130–4134 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. Johns, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), Part II: Advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 29–58 (1999).

T. F. Eibert, J. L. Volakis, D. R. Wilton, and D. R. Jackson, “Hybrid FE/BI modeling of 3-D doubly periodic structures utilizing triangular prismatic elements and an MPIE formulation accelerated by the Ewald transformation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 47(5), 843–850 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(9), 1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov, “Interference phenomena in waveguides with two corrugated boundaries,” J. Mod. Opt. 36(10), 1303–1320 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, N. Akahira, K. Nishiuchi, K. Nagata, and M. Takao, “High speed overwritable phase change optical disk material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(S26–4), 61–66 (1987)

Akahira, N.

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, K. Nishiuchi, N. Akahira, and M. Takao, “Rapid-phase transitions of GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary amorphous thin films for an optical disk memory,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(5), 2849–2856 (1991).
[Crossref]

N. Yamada, E. Ohno, N. Akahira, K. Nishiuchi, K. Nagata, and M. Takao, “High speed overwritable phase change optical disk material,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 26(S26–4), 61–66 (1987)

Alù, A.

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C. Chen, I. An, G. M. Ferreira, N. J. Podraza, J. A. Zapien, and R. W. Collins, “Multichannel Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on the dual rotating compensator principle,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 14–23 (2004).
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J. A. Bossard, X. Liang, L. Li, S. Yun, D. H. Werner, B. Weiner, T. S. Mayer, P. L. Cristman, A. Diaz, and I. C. Khoo, “Tunable frequency selective surfaces and negative-zero-positive index metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(5), 1308–1320 (2008).
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T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Fast tuning of double Fano resonance using a phase-change metamaterial under low power intensity,” Sci. Rep. 4(3), 4463 (2014).
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J. Hegedüs and S. R. Elliott, “Microscopic origin of the fast crystallization ability of Ge-Sb-Te phase-change memory materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 399–405 (2008).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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A. M. Urbas, J. Jacob, L. D. Negro, N. Engheta, A. D. Boardman, P. Egan, A. B. Khanikaev, V. Menon, M. Ferrera, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, J. Valentine, C. Pfeiffer, A. Grbic, E. Narimanov, L. Zhu, S. Fan, A. Alù, E. Poutrina, N. M. Litchinitser, M. A. Noginov, K. F. MacDonald, E. Plum, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, D. A. Pawlak, I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, and D. Chanda, “Roadmap on optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
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Ferreira, G. M.

C. Chen, I. An, G. M. Ferreira, N. J. Podraza, J. A. Zapien, and R. W. Collins, “Multichannel Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on the dual rotating compensator principle,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 14–23 (2004).
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A. M. Urbas, J. Jacob, L. D. Negro, N. Engheta, A. D. Boardman, P. Egan, A. B. Khanikaev, V. Menon, M. Ferrera, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, J. Valentine, C. Pfeiffer, A. Grbic, E. Narimanov, L. Zhu, S. Fan, A. Alù, E. Poutrina, N. M. Litchinitser, M. A. Noginov, K. F. MacDonald, E. Plum, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, D. A. Pawlak, I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, and D. Chanda, “Roadmap on optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, S. Ramanathan, D. N. Basov, F. Capasso, C. Ronning, and M. A. Kats, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16(2), 1050–1055 (2016).
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A. M. Urbas, J. Jacob, L. D. Negro, N. Engheta, A. D. Boardman, P. Egan, A. B. Khanikaev, V. Menon, M. Ferrera, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, J. Valentine, C. Pfeiffer, A. Grbic, E. Narimanov, L. Zhu, S. Fan, A. Alù, E. Poutrina, N. M. Litchinitser, M. A. Noginov, K. F. MacDonald, E. Plum, X. Liu, P. F. Nealey, C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, D. A. Pawlak, I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, and D. Chanda, “Roadmap on optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 18(9), 093005 (2016).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Hegedüs and S. R. Elliott, “Microscopic origin of the fast crystallization ability of Ge-Sb-Te phase-change memory materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 399–405 (2008).
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B. Johns, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), Part II: Advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 29–58 (1999).

Hewak, D. W.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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B. Johns, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. Hilfiker, R. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), Part II: Advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE CR72, 29–58 (1999).

Hsiao, H.-H.

H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
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Hsieh, W. T.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(11), 1600106 (2016).

Huang, C. C.

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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Jackson, D. R.

T. F. Eibert, J. L. Volakis, D. R. Wilton, and D. R. Jackson, “Hybrid FE/BI modeling of 3-D doubly periodic structures utilizing triangular prismatic elements and an MPIE formulation accelerated by the Ewald transformation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 47(5), 843–850 (1999).
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C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(11), 1600106 (2016).

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K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
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J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, M. V. Rybin, A. A. Kuchmizhak, S. Joudkazis, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
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Z. H. Jiang, S. Yun, F. Toor, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing mid-infrared metamaterial coating,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4641–4647 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

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J. A. Bossard, X. Liang, L. Li, S. Yun, D. H. Werner, B. Weiner, T. S. Mayer, P. L. Cristman, A. Diaz, and I. C. Khoo, “Tunable frequency selective surfaces and negative-zero-positive index metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 56(5), 1308–1320 (2008).
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C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y.-H. Chen, H.-C. Wang, T.-Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase-change medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(11), 1600106 (2016).

S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, M. V. Rybin, A. A. Kuchmizhak, S. Joudkazis, and Y. Kivshar, “Light-induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(5), 1700108 (2017).
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Z. Zhu, P. G. Evans, R. F. Haglund, and J. G. Valentine, “Dynamically reconfigurable metadevice employing nanostructured phase-change materials,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4881–4885 (2017).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Fast tuning of double Fano resonance using a phase-change metamaterial under low power intensity,” Sci. Rep. 4(3), 4463 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small Methods (1)

H.-H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Chen, I. An, G. M. Ferreira, N. J. Podraza, J. A. Zapien, and R. W. Collins, “Multichannel Mueller matrix ellipsometer based on the dual rotating compensator principle,” Thin Solid Films 455–456, 14–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

The work described in the present paper was carried out in 2011.

T. J. Cui, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, “Introduction to Metamaterials,” in Metamaterials, T. J. Cui, R. Liu, and D. R. Smith, eds. (Springer, 2010).

Theory and Phenomena of Metamaterials, F. Capolino, ed. (CRC Press, 2009).

R. L. Haupt and D. H. Werner, Genetic Algorithms in Electromagnetics (Wiley-IEEE, 2007)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) X-ray diffraction spectra of the 150-nm-thick GST films. Measurement results are shown for samples that are amorphous (lower spectrum), crystallized at 170 °C (middle spectrum) and at 370 °C (upper spectrum). The assigned reflections indicate the formation of the fcc structure (middle curve) and the hexagonal structure (upper curve) in the films. The curves are shifted in the vertical direction for clarity. (b) Schematic representation of the GST film structure transformation from amorphous to fcc crystalline state. (c) Raman scattering spectra for amorphous and crystalline GST films. (d) Measured complex refractive index of amorphous and crystalline (fcc structure) GST films in the near- to mid-infrared range.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a,b) Reconfigurable metasurface pattern designed using the genetic algorithm and PFEBI electromagnetic solver. (c,d) Simulated scattering parameters of the optimized metasurface showing high transmission and high absorption in the 1.55 μm range for the amorphous and fcc-crystalline phases, respectively. (e,f) FESEM images of small areas of the fabricated metasurface sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-c) Experimental transmittance, reflectance, and calculated absorptance spectra for the metasurface with GST PCM layer in amorphous and crystalline states. (d) Illustration (using ray tracing) of physical mechanisms leading to the resonant transmission and reflection in the developed metasurface. The leakage of the guided mode is not shown. (e-f) Experimental transmittance and reflectance shown in the broader wavelength range to demonstrate the red-shift of the resonance peaks.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflectance and transmittance spectra of the 300 × 300 µm2 metasurface patterns formed in the amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films using: (a), (b) different e-beam exposure doses (the same structure period) and (c), (d) different pixel sizes (variable structure period) as indicated in the insets. The spectra were taken at 20° incidence using the FT-IR microscope.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Homogeneous layer of Ge2Sb2Te5 on fused silica substrate optimized to reconfigure from high transmission to high absorption in the amorphous and crystalline states, respectively. (b) Simulated reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance magnitudes for the optimized 200-nm-thick PCM layer in the amorphous and (c) fcc crystalline states. (d) Simulated scattering magnitudes at 1.65 µm wavelength for PCM layer thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm in the amorphous and (e) fcc crystalline states.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulated electric (a-f) and magnetic (g-l) field magnitudes at three wavelengths for amorphous and fcc-crystalline states of the patterned GST PCM layer of the metasurface. For each panel a horizontal slice through the center of the PCM layer as well as a vertical slice through the edge of the unit cell are shown for a 3 × 3 array of cells. The incident electric and magnetic fields are polarized in the PCM layer plane. λ = 1.4 μm: (a, g) amorphous phase and (b, h) crystalline phase; λ = 1.7 μm: (c, i) amorphous phase and (d, j) crystalline phase; λ = 1.85 μm: (e, k) amorphous phase and (f, l) crystalline phase. Color indicates relative electric and magnetic field magnitudes.

Equations (1)

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Cost=dB{T(Am)}dB{ 1R(Cr)T(Cr) }

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