Abstract

Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio (HAR) micro/nanostructures by two-photon polymerization (TPP) has become a hot topic because of the advantages of ultra-high resolution and true 3D printing ability. However, the low efficiency caused by point-by-point scanning strategy limits its application. In this Letter, we propose a strategy for the rapid fabrication of HAR microstructures by combining TPP with an amplitude-phase optimized long depth of focus laser beam (LDFB). The optimization of the LDFB is implemented by modulating the amplitude and phase on a phase-only spatial light modulator, which can suppress the side lobe and smooth energy oscillations effectively. The LDFB is used for rapid fabrication of HAR micropillars and various microstructures, which greatly increases the fabrication efficiency. As a demonstration, several typical HAR microstructures such as assemblies, microchannels, microtubes, and cell scaffolds are prepared. Moreover, the microcapture arrays are rapidly fabricated for the capture of microspheres and the formation of microlens arrays, which show focusing and imaging ability.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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L. Gao, L. Shao, B. C. Chen, and E. Betzig, Nat. Protoc. 9, 1083 (2014).
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C. Shen, Q. Hong, Q. Zhu, C. Zu, and S. Wei, Opt. Laser Technol. 120, 105682 (2019).
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W. Yu, Z. Ji, D. Dong, X. Yang, Y. Xiao, Q. Gong, P. Xi, and K. Shi, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 147 (2016).
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Staronski, L. R.

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F. He, J. Yu, Y. Tan, W. Chu, C. Zhou, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, Sci. Rep. 7, 40785 (2017).
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F. He, J. Yu, Y. Tan, W. Chu, C. Zhou, Y. Cheng, and K. Sugioka, Sci. Rep. 7, 40785 (2017).
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C. Shen, Q. Hong, Q. Zhu, C. Zu, and S. Wei, Opt. Laser Technol. 120, 105682 (2019).
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D. Pan, S. Liu, S. Ji, Z. Cai, J. Li, Y. Hou, W. Zhang, S. Fan, R. Li, Y. Hu, W. Zhu, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Opt. Lett. 45, 897 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Ji, L. Yang, C. Zhang, Z. Cai, Y. Hu, J. Li, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Opt. Lett. 43, 3514 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Yang, D. Qian, C. Xin, Z. Hu, S. Ji, D. Wu, Y. Hu, J. Li, W. Huang, and J. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 221103 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, Y. Hu, J. Li, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Ni, Z. Cai, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Opt. Eng. 55, 035102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xi, P.

W. Yu, Z. Ji, D. Dong, X. Yang, Y. Xiao, Q. Gong, P. Xi, and K. Shi, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 147 (2016).
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Xiao, Y.

W. Yu, Z. Ji, D. Dong, X. Yang, Y. Xiao, Q. Gong, P. Xi, and K. Shi, Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 147 (2016).
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C. Zhang, Y. Hu, J. Li, Z. Lao, B. Xu, J. Ni, Z. Cai, D. Wu, and J. Chu, Opt. Eng. 55, 035102 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Optimization of LDFB. (a) Axial intensity distribution of (a-1) axilens beam, (a-2) phase optimized axilens beam, and (a-3) amplitude-phase optimized axilens beam. (b) Intensity axial distribution under different $\Delta$. (c)–(e) Axial intensity of axilens beam, phase optimized axilens beam, and amplitude optimization of light.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Realization of amplitude-phase modulation on a pure phase SLM. (a) Diagram of TPP system. (b) Schematic of modulation of light amplitude by a blazed grating. (c) Diffraction efficiency of different modulation depth and different diffraction order beam. (d) Side-lobe microstructures exposed by the unoptimized axilens beams. (e) Prefect HAR micropillars fabricated by one-step exposure. (f) Top view and side view of four-micropillar assemblies. (g) Top view and side view of self-assembled microtubes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Using the optimized axilens beam to fabricate HAR microstructures/microdevices by line scanning. (a) Schematic of single scanning processing. (b) Surface quality of the microstructure is improved with increasing processing depth. (c) and (d) Top view and side view of microtubes fabricated by single scanning exposure. (e) and (f) Top view and 45° view of common shape cell scaffold. (g) and (h) Top view and 45° view of orthogonal hexagonal liver cell scaffold.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Formation and characterization of microlens array composed of the captured microspheres. (a) Process of capturing ${\rm SiO}_2$ microspheres. (b) Relationship between capture rate and number of cycles. The illustration schematically shows the state when the microsphere is captured. (c) 45° view of capture array. (d) and (e) SEM image of arrays that are not fully filled with small balls and filled with microspheres, respectively. (f) Schematic of test system. (g) Image taken above the microlens array. (h) Spot array obtained by focusing the microlens array. (i) Intensity distribution of the focus of the microlens array at different positions.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

φ ( r ) = R 2 ( Z 1 + Z 2 ) 2 Z 2 2 ln [ Z 1 Z 2 Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 2 2 R 2 ( Z 1 + Z 2 ) r 2 ] ,
A ( r ) = { 0 0 < r < r 1 sin 2 [ π Z 2 2 ( r 2 R 2 Z 1 2 Z 2 2 ) 2 R 2 ( Z 1 + Z 2 ) Δ ] r 1 < r < r 2 1 r 2 < r < r 3 sin 2 [ π Z 2 2 ( R 2 r 2 ) 2 R 2 ( Z 1 + Z 2 ) Δ ] r 3 < r < R ,
η ( φ ) = 2 ( 1 cos φ ) ( φ 2 m π ) 2 ,
U ( r ) = A ( r ) exp ( φ ( r ) + 2 π x / T ) .
a ( r ) = η 1 ( A ( r ) ) ,
U ( r ) = exp ( m o d ( φ ( r ) + 2 π x / T , 2 π ) a ( r ) ) .

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