Abstract

Channel waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 substrates by proton exchange in melts of benzoic acid have been analyzed by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The depletion of lithium from the waveguide regions, owing to proton exchange, was found to depend to a strong degree on guide width as well as diffusion time for common (249°C) ion-exchange temperatures. In addition to a reduced depth, a guide formed by diffusing through a 6-μm-wide metallic aperture for 10 min suffered 60% less lithium depletion near its surface than one formed by diffusing through a 12-μm aperture for the same time. Optical measurements were performed at 1060 and 1320 nm in guides of width ranging from 5 to 10 μm.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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