Abstract

At present, researchers are exploring biological tissue detection method using terahertz techniques. In this paper, techniques to inspect mouse liver injury by using terahertz spectroscopy were studied. The boxplots were applied to remove abnormal data, and the maximal information coefficient was employed to select crucial features from the absorption coefficient and refractive index spectra. Random Forests and AdaBoost were applied to recognize different levels of liver injury. We found that AdaBoost had better performance on low-level injury classification. This work suggests that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect liver injury at an early stage and evaluate liver treatment strategies.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

16 September 2019: A typographical correction was made to Fig. 1.


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2018 (3)

2017 (2)

R. Zhang, Y. He, K. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Y. Zhao, and C. Zhang, “Composite multiscale entropy analysis of reflective terahertz signals for biological tissues,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23669 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Systems with Applications 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bernal and J. Wendon, “Acute liver failure,” N. Engl. J. Med. 369(26), 2525–2534 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Petronijevic and K. Ilic, “Associations of Gender and Age with the Reporting of Drug-Induced Hepatic Failure: Data from the VigiBase,” J. Clin. Pharmacol. 53(4), 435–443 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Singh, S. Singh, and S. Gupta, “A New Quantitative Metric for Liver Classification from Ultrasound Images,” IJCEE 4(4), 605–607 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Machine Learning 45(1), 157–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the Origin of Contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Zhu, A. Arbor, and T. Hastie, “Multi-class AdaBoost,” Statistics & Its Interface 2(3), 349–360 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and M. Peters, “Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios,” For. Ecol. Manage. 254(3), 390–406 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Catherine A. O’Brien, A. Pollett, S. Gallinger, and J. E. Dick, “A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice,” Nature 445(7123), 106–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Avidan, “Ensemble Tracking,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 29(2), 261–271 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Björnsson and R. Olsson, “Suspected drug-induced liver fatalities reported to the WHO database,” Dig. Liver Dis. 38(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald and E. Al, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. B. Longley, D. P. Harkin, and P. G. Johnston, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 330–338 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Machine Learning 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. V. Triest, C. J. V. Groeningen, and H. M. Pinedo, “Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of colorectal cancer,” Eur. J. Cancer 31(7-8), 1193–1197 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Schalhorn and M. Kühl, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluorouracil and folinic acid,” Semin. Oncol. 19(2 Suppl 3), 82 (1992).

Abbott, D.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adam, R.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Al, E.

A. J. Fitzgerald and E. Al, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alger, J.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aloia, T.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amel, A.

Arbor, A.

J. Zhu, A. Arbor, and T. Hastie, “Multi-class AdaBoost,” Statistics & Its Interface 2(3), 349–360 (2009).
[Crossref]

Avidan, S.

S. Avidan, “Ensemble Tracking,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 29(2), 261–271 (2007).
[Crossref]

Azoulay, D.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bajwa, N.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bernal, W.

W. Bernal and J. Wendon, “Acute liver failure,” N. Engl. J. Med. 369(26), 2525–2534 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bismuih, H.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Björnsson, E.

E. Björnsson and R. Olsson, “Suspected drug-induced liver fatalities reported to the WHO database,” Dig. Liver Dis. 38(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Breiman, L.

L. Breiman, “Random Forests,” Machine Learning 45(1), 5–32 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Castaing, D.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheon, H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cutler, A.

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Machine Learning 45(1), 157–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cutler, D. R.

A. Cutler, D. R. Cutler, and J. R. Stevens, “Random forests,” Machine Learning 45(1), 157–175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dick, J. E.

Catherine A. O’Brien, A. Pollett, S. Gallinger, and J. E. Dick, “A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice,” Nature 445(7123), 106–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Du, P.

Eadie, L. H.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Systems with Applications 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ennis, D. B.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Finucane, H. K.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fishbein, M. C.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Systems with Applications 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald and E. Al, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fukushi, Y.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gaëtan, M.

Gallinger, S.

Catherine A. O’Brien, A. Pollett, S. Gallinger, and J. E. Dick, “A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice,” Nature 445(7123), 106–110 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ge, W.

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

Giacchetti, S.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gibson, A. P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Goldin, R.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Groeningen, C. J. V.

B. V. Triest, C. J. V. Groeningen, and H. M. Pinedo, “Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of colorectal cancer,” Eur. J. Cancer 31(7-8), 1193–1197 (1995).
[Crossref]

Grossman, S. R.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grundfest, W. S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gupta, S.

M. Singh, S. Singh, and S. Gupta, “A New Quantitative Metric for Liver Classification from Ultrasound Images,” IJCEE 4(4), 605–607 (2012).
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D. B. Longley, D. P. Harkin, and P. G. Johnston, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 330–338 (2003).
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Hastie, T.

J. Zhu, A. Arbor, and T. Hastie, “Multi-class AdaBoost,” Statistics & Its Interface 2(3), 349–360 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

Hou, D.

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
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Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, S. Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the Origin of Contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
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M. Petronijevic and K. Ilic, “Associations of Gender and Age with the Reporting of Drug-Induced Hepatic Failure: Data from the VigiBase,” J. Clin. Pharmacol. 53(4), 435–443 (2013).
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S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and M. Peters, “Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios,” For. Ecol. Manage. 254(3), 390–406 (2008).
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Jean-Paul, G.

Johnston, P. G.

D. B. Longley, D. P. Harkin, and P. G. Johnston, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 330–338 (2003).
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Kang, X.

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
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T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
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H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
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S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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A. Schalhorn and M. Kühl, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluorouracil and folinic acid,” Semin. Oncol. 19(2 Suppl 3), 82 (1992).

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D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
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Lee, S. H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
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Li, X.

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
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Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
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Liu, K.

Longley, D. B.

D. B. Longley, D. P. Harkin, and P. G. Johnston, “5-Fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 3(5), 330–338 (2003).
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Lu, X.

Ma, S.

H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
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Ma, Y.

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
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N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
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L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and M. Peters, “Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios,” For. Ecol. Manage. 254(3), 390–406 (2008).
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G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
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D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
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G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
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N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
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E. Björnsson and R. Olsson, “Suspected drug-induced liver fatalities reported to the WHO database,” Dig. Liver Dis. 38(1), 33–38 (2006).
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S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
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Patrick, M.

Peters, M.

L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and M. Peters, “Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios,” For. Ecol. Manage. 254(3), 390–406 (2008).
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M. Petronijevic and K. Ilic, “Associations of Gender and Age with the Reporting of Drug-Induced Hepatic Failure: Data from the VigiBase,” J. Clin. Pharmacol. 53(4), 435–443 (2013).
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Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

R. Zhang, Y. He, K. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Zhang, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, Y. Zhao, and C. Zhang, “Composite multiscale entropy analysis of reflective terahertz signals for biological tissues,” Opt. Express 25(20), 23669 (2017).
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C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
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Pinedo, H. M.

B. V. Triest, C. J. V. Groeningen, and H. M. Pinedo, “Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of colorectal cancer,” Eur. J. Cancer 31(7-8), 1193–1197 (1995).
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Plasse, M.

T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
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G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
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Pollett, A.

Catherine A. O’Brien, A. Pollett, S. Gallinger, and J. E. Dick, “A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice,” Nature 445(7123), 106–110 (2007).
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Prasad, A. M.

L. R. Iverson, A. M. Prasad, S. N. Matthews, and M. Peters, “Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios,” For. Ecol. Manage. 254(3), 390–406 (2008).
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Quentin, C.

Reese, G.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
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L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Systems with Applications 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
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C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
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D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
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Reshef, Y. A.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
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K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
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N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
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Sabesi, P. C.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
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A. Schalhorn and M. Kühl, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluorouracil and folinic acid,” Semin. Oncol. 19(2 Suppl 3), 82 (1992).

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T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse, V. Karam, F. Levi, S. Giacchetti, D. Azoulay, H. Bismuih, D. Castaing, and R. Adam, “Liver Histology and Surgical Outcomes After Preoperative Chemotherapy With Fluorouracil Plus Oxaliplatin in Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(31), 4983–4990 (2006).
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Singh, M.

M. Singh, S. Singh, and S. Gupta, “A New Quantitative Metric for Liver Classification from Ultrasound Images,” IJCEE 4(4), 605–607 (2012).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

M. Singh, S. Singh, and S. Gupta, “A New Quantitative Metric for Liver Classification from Ultrasound Images,” IJCEE 4(4), 605–607 (2012).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
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N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
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Sung, S.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the Origin of Contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taylor, Z. D.

N. Bajwa, S. Sung, D. B. Ennis, M. C. Fishbein, B. N. Nowroozi, D. Ruan, A. Maccabi, J. Alger, M. A. St. John, W. S. Grundfest, and Z. D. Taylor, “Terahertz Imaging of Cutaneous Edema: Correlation with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Burn Wounds,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 64(11), 2682–2694 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tekkis, P.

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomas, Z.

Triest, B. V.

B. V. Triest, C. J. V. Groeningen, and H. M. Pinedo, “Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of colorectal cancer,” Eur. J. Cancer 31(7-8), 1193–1197 (1995).
[Crossref]

Turnbaugh, P. J.

D. N. Reshef, Y. A. Reshef, H. K. Finucane, S. R. Grossman, G. McVean, P. J. Turnbaugh, E. S. Lander, M. Mitzenmacher, and P. C. Sabesi, “Detecting Novel Associations in Large Data Sets,” Science 334(6062), 1518–1524 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

L. H. Eadie, C. B. Reid, A. J. Fitzgerald, and V. P. Wallace, “Optimizing multi-dimensional terahertz imaging analysis for colon cancer diagnosis,” Expert Systems with Applications 40(6), 2043–2050 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. B. Reid, A. Fitzgerald, G. Reese, R. Goldin, P. Tekkis, P. S. O. Kelly, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, A. P. Gibson, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(14), 4333–4353 (2011).
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H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, Y.

S. Sy, S. Y. Huang, and Y. Xiang, “Terahertz Spectroscopy of Liver Cirrhosis: Investigating the Origin of Contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xie, P.

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamaguchi, Y. Fukushi, O. Kubota, T. Itsuji, T. Ouhci, and S. Yamamoto, “Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30124 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Cheon, H. Yang, S. H. Lee, Y. A. Kim, and J. H. Son, “Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 37103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yurchenko, S. O.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zaytsev, K. I.

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, G.

Y. Cao, P. Huang, X. Li, W. Ge, D. Hou, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer,” Phys. Med. Biol. 63(3), 035016 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. Li, J. Cai, Y. Ma, X. Kang, P. Huang, and G. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(18), 5423–5440 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, R.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

G. M. Png, J. W. Choi, B. W. Ng, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, and X. Zhang, “The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on thz spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(13), 3501–3517 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, T.

H. Chen, S. Ma, X. Wu, W. Yang, and T. Zhao, “Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036017 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, A. Arbor, and T. Hastie, “Multi-class AdaBoost,” Statistics & Its Interface 2(3), 349–360 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. I. Zaytsev, K. G. Kudrin, V. E. Karasik, I. V. Reshetov, and S. O. Yurchenko, “In vivo terahertz spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi: Pilot study of non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplasia,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(5), 053702 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Dig. Liver Dis. (1)

E. Björnsson and R. Olsson, “Suspected drug-induced liver fatalities reported to the WHO database,” Dig. Liver Dis. 38(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

B. V. Triest, C. J. V. Groeningen, and H. M. Pinedo, “Current chemotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of colorectal cancer,” Eur. J. Cancer 31(7-8), 1193–1197 (1995).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

Y. Zhou, L. Yang, Z. Liao, X. He, Y. Zhou, and H. Guo, “Epidemiology of drug-induced liver injury in China: a systematic;analysis of the Chinese literature including 21 789 patients,” Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 25(7), 825–829 (2013).
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Expert Systems with Applications (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Stereo diagram showing the sample holder.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Flow chart of injured liver tissue discrimination algorithm based on terahertz spectra.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The average terahertz time domain spectra of two liver tissues. (a) The average terahertz time domain spectra of the 4th liver tissue in 75 mg/kg group without clear abnormal data. (b) The average terahertz time domain spectra the 5th liver tissue in the 50 mg/kg group with clear abnormal data.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The represent boxplots showing the abnormal spectra in each tissue in one group. (a) The boxplot result of 25 mg/kg group with the parameter $\Delta E$ . (b) The boxplot result of 50 mg/kg group with the parameter $\Delta t$ .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Representative absorption coefficient and refractive index spectra of the 2nd tissue in 100 mg/kg group. (a) Absorption coefficient spectra without boxplot process. (b) Absorption coefficient spectra with boxplot process. (c) Refractive index spectra without boxplot process. (d) Refractive index spectra with boxplot process.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Average spectra of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of five groups. (a) Average absorption coefficient spectra of each group with error bars. (b) Average refractive index spectra of each group with error bars. (c) Average absorption coefficient spectra of each group. (d) Average refractive index spectra of each group.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Confusion matrix of three groups’ classification. (a) Classification results using RF with original features. (b) Classification results using RF with PCA features. (c) Classification results using RF with MIC + PCA features. (d) Classification results using AdaBoost with original features. (e) Classification results using AdaBoost with PCA features. (f) Classification results using AdaBoost with MIC + PCA features.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Confusion matrix of five groups’ classification. (a) Classification results using RF with original features. (b) Classification results using RF with PCA features. (c) Classification results using RF with MIC + PCA features. (d) Classification results using AdaBoost with original features. (e) Classification results using AdaBoost with PCA features. (f) Classification results using AdaBoost with MIC + PCA features.

Tables (3)

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Table 1. Serum ALT and AST values of five groups after three weeks of 5-Fu injection.

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Table 2. Classification results of three groups based on different features.

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Table 3. Classification results of five groups based on different features.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E = E max E min .
Δ t = t s a m t r e f .
g i n i ( D ) = 1 i = 1 n p i 2 ,
p c = max { p i = j = 1 m p i j m | i I } .
f ( x ) = t = 1 T w t f t ( x ) .
M ( X , Y ) ( a , b ) = max I ( ( X , Y ) | G ) log min { a , b } ,
M I C ( X , Y ) = max a b < B ( n ) { M ( X , Y ) ( a , b ) } ,

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