Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate a cone-shaped inwall coupler for excitation of the whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) of a microsphere resonator. The coupler is composed of a single mode fiber (SMF) and a capillary with an inner diameter of 5 μm. After immersing the capillary front end vertically into Hydrofluoric acid to obtain a cone inside the capillary, light in the SMF couples into the capillary efficiently while the hollow core is wide enough for a microsphere to be inserted. Because the front end face of the capillary acts as a reflector, a Fano resonance with an asymmetric line shape and a Q-factor of 2.57 × 104 is observed in the reflection spectrum using a barium titanite glass microsphere with a diameter of 45 μm. The integrated resonator structure has the advantages such as the reflective type, alignment-free and mechanically robust, making it have great potential in sensing applications and optical switching.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, X. Lan, J. Huang, L. Yuan, C. W. Kim, and H. Xiao, “Fiber pigtailed thin wall capillary coupler for excitation of microsphere WGM resonator,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15834–15839 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

C. Lam, P. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Amraoui, M. E.

Bauters, J. F.

Birks, T. A.

Bo, L.

Bouwmeester, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Brambilla, G.

Byer, R. L.

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Côté, F.

de Dood, M. J.

Ding, D.

Ding, M.

Ding, W.

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubreuil, N.

Farrell, G.

Foreman, M. R.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

François, A.

Fraser, M.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gong, Q.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M.

Guan, C.

Hare, J.

He, L.

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Oscillatory thermal dynamics in high-Q PDMS-coated silica toroidal microresonators,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9571–9581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heck, M. J.

Henderson, M. R.

Huang, D.

Huang, J.

Ilchenko, V.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Gorodetsky and V. Ilchenko, “Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 147–154 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jacques, F.

Jiang, X.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. W.

Knight, J. C.

Lam, C.

C. Lam, P. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lamont, M. R.

Lan, X.

Lefèvre, V.

Leung, P.

C. Lam, P. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[Crossref]

Leventhal, D. K.

Li, B.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, M.

Li, Y.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Liu, N.

Liu, Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Liu, L. Shi, X. Xu, S. Yuan, N. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Tunable polarization beam splitter based on optofluidic ring resonator,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17511–17521 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luan, F.

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luke, K.

Maleki, L.

Matsko, A.

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

Messaddeq, Y.

Monro, T. M.

Murugan, G. S.

Nori, F.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

Ozdemir, S. K.

Özdemir, S.

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, B.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter, Y. A.

Qiao, X.

Reano, R.

Reynolds, T.

Riesen, N.

Rochette, M.

Ruege, A.

Sandoghdar, V.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schiller, S.

Semenova, Y.

Shi, L.

Swaim, J. D.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, X.

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanier, F.

Vollmer, F.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

Wang, H.

Wang, P.

Wang, R.

Wu, Q.

Wu, X.

Xiao, H.

Xiao, Y.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y. F.

Xu, L.

Xu, X.

Yang, L.

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Oscillatory thermal dynamics in high-Q PDMS-coated silica toroidal microresonators,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9571–9581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, X. S.

Young, K.

C. Lam, P. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

Yuan, S.

Zhang, X.

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. He, Y. F. Xiao, J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, and L. Yang, “Oscillatory thermal dynamics in high-Q PDMS-coated silica toroidal microresonators,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9571–9581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

Zou, C.

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Li, Y. Xiao, C. Zou, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, and Q. Gong, “Experimental observation of Fano resonance in a single whispering-gallery microresonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(2), 021116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, D. Zhu, X. Yu, W. Ding, and F. Luan, “Fano resonances in metallic grating coupled whispering gallery mode resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151108 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, Ş. Özdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Optothermal spectroscopy of whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171101 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Ilchenko and A. Matsko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part II: Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 15–32 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

C. Lam, P. Leung, and K. Young, “Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths, and strengths of resonances in Mie scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9, 1585–1592 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

B. Peng, Ş. K. Özdemir, W. Chen, F. Nori, and L. Yang, “What is and what is not electromagnetically induced transparency in whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5082 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (9)

S. Schiller and R. L. Byer, “High-resolution spectroscopy of whispering gallery modes in large dielectric spheres,” Opt. Lett. 16(15), 1138–1140 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wang, M. Ding, G. S. Murugan, L. Bo, C. Guan, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, and G. Brambilla, “Packaged, high-Q, microsphere-resonator-based add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5208–5211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Maleki, A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Tunable delay line with interacting whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 626–628 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si(3)N(4) microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vanier, F. Côté, M. E. Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, Y. A. Peter, and M. Rochette, “Low-threshold lasing at 1975 nm in thulium-doped tellurite glass microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5227–5230 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wang, M. Fraser, J. Li, X. Qiao, and A. Wang, “Integrated in-fiber coupler for microsphere whispering-gallery modes resonator excitation,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 308–311 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. A. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. K. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre, “Eroded monomode optical fiber for whispering-gallery mode excitation in fused-silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 813–815 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, “Pigtailing the high-Q microsphere cavity: a simple fiber coupler for optical whispering-gallery modes,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 723–725 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(1), 74–77 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the cone-shaped inwall capillary coupled microsphere resonator. (b) Schematic of the propagation of light at the front end of the capillary with Em (m = 1-13) representing the optical fields.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Microscopic images of the coupler at various fabrication steps. (a) The splicing joint between the SMF and capillary. (b) The front end of the capillary. (c) The front end of the capillary after etching. (d) Thickness of the capillary front end and entering depth as a function of the etching time. (e) Radius of etched hollow core versus z.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Rsoft Beamprop simulation of the cone-shaped inwall capillary coupler. (b) The power contained in the capillary wall at the white dashed time versus the inner diameter of the capillary.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflective resonance spectra (a) in air and (b) in the matching liquid. (c) Microscopic images of the front end after a microsphere is inserted into it. (d) and (e) are the FFTs of spectra (a) and (b), respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulation of Fano resonances versus wavelength detuning and δ (The reflection is normalized). (b), (c) and (d) are three typical simulation Fano resonances corresponding to the three values of δ, 0.72π,0.5π and 0.28π as marked with white dashed lines in (a). (e), (f) and (g) are the corresponding experimentally measured Fano resonances in red and the fitting curves in blue.

Equations (1)

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P R = | E 6 + E 12 E 1 | 2 = | r ( tτt p 2 1τ t 2 p 2 ) 2 exp(2iδ) τ k 2 p 1τ t 2 p 2 | 2

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