Abstract

Extraction of a microwave component from a low-time-jitter femtosecond pulse train has been attractive for current generation of spectrally pure microwave. In order to avoid the transfer from the optical amplitude noise to microwave phase noise (AM-PM), we propose to down-convert the target component to intermediate frequency (IF) before the opto-electronic conversion. Due to the much lower carrier frequency, the AM-PM is greatly suppressed. The target is then recovered by up-conversion with the same microwave local oscillation (LO). As long as the time delay of the second LO matches that of the IF carrier, the phase noise of the LO shows no impact on the extraction process. The residual noise of the proposed extraction is analyzed in theory, which is also experimentally demonstrated as averagely around −155 dBc/Hz under offset frequency larger than 1 kHz when 10-GHz tone is extracted from a home-made femtosecond fiber laser. Large tunable extraction from 1 GHz to 10 GHz is also reported.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Haboucha, W. Zhang, T. Li, M. Lours, A. N. Luiten, Y. Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Optical-fiber pulse rate multiplier for ultralow phase-noise signal generation,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3654–3656 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, J. G. Hartnett, P. L. Stanwix, and M. E. Tobar, “Invited article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 051301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudot, R.

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Campbell, J.

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z. Y.

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coq, Y.

Coq, Y. L.

Currie, M.

M. Currie and I. Vurgaftman, “Microwave phase retardation in saturated InGaAs photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1433–1435 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Dai, Y.

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

Fortier, T.

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haboucha, A.

Hartnett, J. G.

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, J. G. Hartnett, P. L. Stanwix, and M. E. Tobar, “Invited article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 051301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hati, A.

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hou, D.

D. Hou, X. P. Xie, Y. L. Zhang, J. T. Wu, Z. Y. Chen, and J. Y. Zhao, “Highly stable wideband microwave extraction by synchronizing widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator with optical frequency comb,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, E. N.

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, J. G. Hartnett, P. L. Stanwix, and M. E. Tobar, “Invited article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 051301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, K.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kersalé, Y.

Kim, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Attosecond-precision ultrafast photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 432–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kim and F. X. Kärtner, “Microwave signal extraction from femtosecond mode-locked lasers with attosecond relative timing drift,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2022–2024 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, F. X. Kärtner, and F. Ludwig, “Balanced optical-microwave phase detectors for optoelectronic phase-locked loops,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3659–3661 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laghezza, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazzeri, E.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, T.

Locke, C. R.

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, J. G. Hartnett, P. L. Stanwix, and M. E. Tobar, “Invited article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 051301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ludwig, F.

Luiten, A. N.

Malacarne, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maleki, L.

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, “Noise of mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(3), 983–996 (1993).
[Crossref]

Millo, J.

Nelson, C.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Onori, D.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinna, S.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porzi, C.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, F. Quinlan, A. Hati, C. Nelson, J. A. Taylor, Y. Fu, J. Campbell, and S. A. Diddams, “Photonic microwave generation with high-power photodiodes,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1712–1714 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Santarelli, G.

Scaffardi, M.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scotti, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeds, A. J.

Seidel, D.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

Serafino, G.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stanwix, P. L.

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, J. G. Hartnett, P. L. Stanwix, and M. E. Tobar, “Invited article: Design techniques and noise properties of ultrastable cryogenically cooled sapphire-dielectric resonator oscillators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(5), 051301 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Jiang, J. Taylor, F. Quinlan, T. Fortier, and S. A. Diddams, “Noise floor reduction of an Er: fiber laser-based photonic microwave generator,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(6), 1004–1012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. A.

Tobar, M. E.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The proposed microwave extraction from femtosecond optical pulse train through delay-matched frequency conversion pair and IF-domain opto-electronic receiving and filtering.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A numerical example for the proposed microwave extraction scheme. (a) The time jitter of the femtosecond source and the corresponding phase noise of its 10-GHz microwave component. (b) A phase noise comparison of direct detected 10-GHz tone and equivalently filtered one; the green lines show phase noise of the microwave LO and its suppression by delay match; the residual AM-PM noise is also shown. (c) PD output spectrum within its first Nyquist zone.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The SSB noise of the extracted microwave, the IF tone, and the microwave LO, respectively. (b) The microwave spectrum after extraction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The measured absolute SSB noises of the extracted microwave components (a) around 10 GHz and (b) from 1 GHz to 10 GHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The measured residual SSB noise of two 10-GHz microwave component extracted from the same femtosecond laser when two independent extraction setups are used.

Equations (9)

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I O = Α O k q( t 2πk / ω O τ O )
Φ O =N ω O τ O
Φ D =N ω O ( τ O + τ Α ( Α O ) )
I M =( 1+βcos( ω L t+ φ L ) ) Α O k q( t 2πk / ω O τ O ) k Α O ( 1+βcos( ω L ( 2πk / ω O + τ O )+ φ L ) )q( t 2πk / ω O τ O ) = k Α O ( 1+βcos( ω IF 2πk / ω O + ω L τ O + φ L ) ) Α O q( t 2πk / ω O τ O )
ω IF = ω L N ω O , | ω IF |< ω O /2
v PD = k Α O ( 1+βcos( ω IF 2πk / ω O + ω L τ O + φ L ) ) q Α O ( t 2πk / ω O τ O τ Α ( Α O ) ) Α O ( 1+βcos( ω IF t+N ω O τ O ω IF τ Α ( Α O )+ φ L ) ) k q Α O ( t 2πk / ω O τ O τ Α ( Α O ) )
v IF β Α O cos( ω IF t+N ω O τ O ω IF τ Α ( Α O )+ φ L )
v RF β Α O cos( N ω O tN ω O τ O + ω IF τ Α ( Α O )+ φ L ( tΔt ) ϕ L ( t ) )
Φ E =N ω O τ O ω IF τ Α ( Α O )( φ L ( tΔt ) φ L ( t ) )

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