Abstract

In this paper, we describe Fourier-based wave-front sensors (WFSs) as linear integral operators, characterized by their kernel. In the first part, we derive the dependency of this quantity with respect to the WFS’s optical parameters: pupil geometry, filtering mask, and tip/tilt modulation. In the second part, we focus the study on the special case of convolutional kernels. The assumptions required to be in such a regime are described. We then show that these convolutional kernels allow to drastically simplify the WFS model by summarizing its behavior in a concise and comprehensive quantity called the WFS impulse response. We explain in particular how it allows to compute the sensor’s sensitivity with respect to spatial frequencies. Such an approach therefore provides a fast diagnostic tool to compare and optimize Fourier-based WFSs. In the third part, we develop the impact of the residual phases on the sensor’s impulse response, and show that the convolutional model remains valid. Finally, a section dedicated to the pyramid WFS concludes this work and illustrates how the slope maps are easily handled by the convolutional model.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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