Abstract

We report here our experimental studies on efficient excitation of higher-order modes in a few-mode fiber realized through selective chemical etching of single-mode fiber, depositing a dynamic refractive index profile coating (gelatin) and designing a well-performing high relative humidity (RH) (73%–99% RH) sensor with sensitivity as high as 1.2  dBm/% RH and fast response (125  ms). The design relies on fixing quasi-adiabatic transition of the single-mode–few-mode–single-mode configuration to launch light at angles corresponding to desired higher-order modes, pushing more power into the coating. Our systematic study using the devised hybrid theoretical ray- and wave-optic model uniquely interprets the variety of experimental results.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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