The relative numerosity of the long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones and the red–green color appearance, as assessed by means of unique yellow, are stable from fovea to midperiphery (±28 deg nasotemporal). As foveal tests decrease in size, unique yellow progressively shifts toward longer wavelengths, favoring a model of red–green opponency carried by cells whose centers receive input from either L or M cones and whose surrounds receive mixed contributions from both. Individual differences in unique yellow over a 20-nm range and the relative numerosity of L and M cones can be linked by means of this model, suggesting that the relative number of L and M cones is a factor that regulates individual variations in red–green color appearance.
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