Abstract

Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in single-mode fibers, used as narrowband filters, have reached a high maturity level, especially for applications in telecommunications and sensing. In spectroscopic applications, e.g., in Raman spectroscopy, FBG filters can be used to separate laser probing light from generated sensor light which simplifies Raman probes. For this purpose, light from a sample has to be collected with high efficiency into a fiber. The light collection efficiency in single-mode fibers is, however, strongly limited due to the small fiber core area. Therefore, we have investigated the possibility to use single-mode multicore fibers to increase the light collection efficiency while maintaining Bragg filter performance. An optical density filtering effect of 1.5, which is equivalent to a transmission of -15 dB, has been achieved with a FBG in a 61-core fiber. Simulations have been performed in order to clarify the influence of the fiber geometry and refractive index distribution on grating performance. The application of chirped gratings in the multicore fibers improves filter performance in comparison to homogeneous gratings.

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2015 (1)

M. Becker, T. Elsmann, I. Latka, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Chirped phase mask interferometer for fiber Bragg grating array inscription,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2093–2098, 2015.

2014 (2)

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, J. Lawrence, S. Ellis, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Demonstration of uniform multicore fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 31575–31581, 2014.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

2012 (5)

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern—Spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 13996–14008, 2012.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

R. Mahakud, O. Prakash, J. Kumar, S. V. Nakhe, and S. K. Dixit, “Analysis on the effect of UV beam intensity profile on the refractive index modulation in phase mask based fiber Bragg grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 285, pp. 5351–5358, 2012.

2011 (3)

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Efficient design of spatially symmetric Bragg gratings for add/drop multiplexers,” Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 513–520, 2008.

2007 (2)

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

H. Sorensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 270, pp. 207–210, 2007.

2006 (1)

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, “Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 9483–9490, 2006.

2005 (2)

Y. Komachi, H. Sato, K. Aizawa, and H. Tashiro, “Micro-optical fiber probe for use in an intravascular Raman endoscope,” Appl. Opt., vol. 44, no. 22, pp. 4722–4732, 2005.

Y. Liu, J. Lit, X. Gu, and L. Wei, “Fiber comb filters based on UV-writing Bragg gratings in graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 13, pp. 8508–8513, 2005.

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 121–147, 2003.

2000 (2)

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, and S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230–235, 2000.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

1996 (1)

1993 (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H$_2$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1191–1193, 1993.

P. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World, pp. 41–48, 1993.

1992 (2)

R. M. Atkins, “Measurement of the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of optical fibers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 469–471, 1992.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of singlemode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 1743–1744, 1992.

1985 (1)

D. L. Franzen, “Determining the effective cutoff wavelength of single-mode fibers: An lnterlaboratory comparison,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 128–134, 1985.

1979 (1)

Aichele, C.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

Aizawa, K.

Archambault, J. L.

P. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World, pp. 41–48, 1993.

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H$_2$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1191–1193, 1993.

R. M. Atkins, “Measurement of the ultraviolet absorption spectrum of optical fibers,” Appl. Opt., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 469–471, 1992.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of singlemode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 1743–1744, 1992.

Barcelos, S.

Bartelt, H.

M. Becker, T. Elsmann, I. Latka, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Chirped phase mask interferometer for fiber Bragg grating array inscription,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2093–2098, 2015.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

Baxter, G. W.

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

Becker, M.

M. Becker, T. Elsmann, I. Latka, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Chirped phase mask interferometer for fiber Bragg grating array inscription,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2093–2098, 2015.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

Becker, R. G.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Bierlich, J.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

Bird, D. M.

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, “Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 9483–9490, 2006.

Birks, T.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrenc, I. Gris-Sanchez, T. Birks, R. Haynes, and D. Haynes, “Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9151, pp. 91515F-1–91515F-9, 2014.

Birks, T. A.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern—Spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 13996–14008, 2012.

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, “Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 9483–9490, 2006.

S. Min, C. Trinh, S. Leon-Saval, N. Jovanovic, P. Gillingham, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, T. A. Birks, M. M. Roth, R. Haynes, and L. Fogarty, “Multi-core fiber Bragg grating developments for OH suppression,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 84503L-1–84503L-10, 2012.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, J. Lawrence, S. Ellis, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Demonstration of uniform multicore fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 31575–31581, 2014.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

S. Min, C. Trinh, S. Leon-Saval, N. Jovanovic, P. Gillingham, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, T. A. Birks, M. M. Roth, R. Haynes, and L. Fogarty, “Multi-core fiber Bragg grating developments for OH suppression,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 84503L-1–84503L-10, 2012.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrenc, I. Gris-Sanchez, T. Birks, R. Haynes, and D. Haynes, “Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9151, pp. 91515F-1–91515F-9, 2014.

Brinkmeyer, E.

F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Efficient design of spatially symmetric Bragg gratings for add/drop multiplexers,” Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 513–520, 2008.

Brückner, S.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

Canning, J.

H. Sorensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 270, pp. 207–210, 2007.

Carabetta, S.

A. G. Mignani, Ciaccheri , A. A. Mencaglia, R. D. Sanzo, S. Carabetta, and M. Russo, “Dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the nondestructive and rapid assessment of honey quality,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340U-1–96340U4, 2015.

Collins, S. F.

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

Cruz, J. L.

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern—Spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 13996–14008, 2012.

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Min, S.-S.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, J. Lawrence, S. Ellis, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Demonstration of uniform multicore fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 31575–31581, 2014.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrenc, I. Gris-Sanchez, T. Birks, R. Haynes, and D. Haynes, “Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9151, pp. 91515F-1–91515F-9, 2014.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H$_2$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1191–1193, 1993.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of singlemode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 1743–1744, 1992.

Mizunami, T.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, and S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230–235, 2000.

Mohammed, W.

Motz, J. T.

Murakami, Y.

Murphy, D. F.

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern—Spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 13996–14008, 2012.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Nakhe, S. V.

R. Mahakud, O. Prakash, J. Kumar, S. V. Nakhe, and S. K. Dixit, “Analysis on the effect of UV beam intensity profile on the refractive index modulation in phase mask based fiber Bragg grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 285, pp. 5351–5358, 2012.

Niiho, T.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, and S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230–235, 2000.

Nolte, S.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Olaya, J. C.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Ota, I.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Ota, T.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Pearce, G. J.

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, “Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 9483–9490, 2006.

Popp, J.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

Prakash, O.

R. Mahakud, O. Prakash, J. Kumar, S. V. Nakhe, and S. K. Dixit, “Analysis on the effect of UV beam intensity profile on the refractive index modulation in phase mask based fiber Bragg grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 285, pp. 5351–5358, 2012.

Rasband, W.

W. Rasband. (2012). Image - image processing and analysis in java. National Institutes of Health. [Online]. Available: http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H$_2$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1191–1193, 1993.

Reekie, L.

Renner, H.

F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Efficient design of spatially symmetric Bragg gratings for add/drop multiplexers,” Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 513–520, 2008.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 121–147, 2003.

Rollinson, C. M.

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

Röpke, U.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

Roth, M. M.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

S. Min, C. Trinh, S. Leon-Saval, N. Jovanovic, P. Gillingham, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, T. A. Birks, M. M. Roth, R. Haynes, and L. Fogarty, “Multi-core fiber Bragg grating developments for OH suppression,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 84503L-1–84503L-10, 2012.

Rothhardt, M.

M. Becker, T. Elsmann, I. Latka, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Chirped phase mask interferometer for fiber Bragg grating array inscription,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2093–2098, 2015.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

Russell, P. J.

P. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World, pp. 41–48, 1993.

Russo, M.

A. G. Mignani, Ciaccheri , A. A. Mencaglia, R. D. Sanzo, S. Carabetta, and M. Russo, “Dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the nondestructive and rapid assessment of honey quality,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340U-1–96340U4, 2015.

Ryder, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, J. W. Goodman, Ed.New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1991.

Sanzo, R. D.

A. G. Mignani, Ciaccheri , A. A. Mencaglia, R. D. Sanzo, S. Carabetta, and M. Russo, “Dispersive Raman spectroscopy for the nondestructive and rapid assessment of honey quality,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, pp. 96340U-1–96340U4, 2015.

Sato, H.

Schuster, K.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

Shigematsu, T.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Shinozaki, A.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Smelser, C. W.

Sorensen, H.

H. Sorensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 270, pp. 207–210, 2007.

Spittel, R.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

Steel, M. J.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Tashiro, H.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, J. W. Goodman, Ed.New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1991.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Thomas, J. U.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Trinh, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

S. Min, C. Trinh, S. Leon-Saval, N. Jovanovic, P. Gillingham, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, T. A. Birks, M. M. Roth, R. Haynes, and L. Fogarty, “Multi-core fiber Bragg grating developments for OH suppression,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 84503L-1–84503L-10, 2012.

Trinh, C. Q.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Tsuchiya, H.

Tsuda, T.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Tünnermann, A.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Unger, S.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 121–147, 2003.

Varming, P.

H. Sorensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 270, pp. 207–210, 2007.

Voigtländer, C.

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Wade, S. A.

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

Wei, L.

Y. Liu, J. Lit, X. Gu, and L. Wei, “Fiber comb filters based on UV-writing Bragg gratings in graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 13, pp. 8508–8513, 2005.

Withford, M. J.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

Wondraczek, K.

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

Yodo, S.

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Adv. Opt. Techn. (1)

K. Schuster, S. Unger, C. Aichele, F. Lindner, S. Grimm, D. Litzkendorf, J. Kobelke, J. Bierlich, K. Wondraczek, and H. Bartelt, “Material and technology trends in fiber optics,” Adv. Opt. Techn., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 447–468, 2014.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Fiber waveguide arrays as model system for discrete optics,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 104, pp. 481–486, 2011.

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, “High pressure H$_2$ loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 1191–1193, 1993.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi, “Observation of changes in UV absorption bands of singlemode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings,” Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 1743–1744, 1992.

Furukawa Rev. (1)

I. Ota, T. Tsuda, A. Shinozaki, S. Yodo, T. Ota, T. Shigematsu, and Y. Ibusuki, “Development of optical fiber gratings for WDM systems,” Furukawa Rev., vol. 19, pp. 35–40, 2000.

Int. J. Electron. Commun. (1)

F. Knappe, H. Renner, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Efficient design of spatially symmetric Bragg gratings for add/drop multiplexers,” Int. J. Electron. Commun., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 513–520, 2008.

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 121–147, 2003.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

D. L. Franzen, “Determining the effective cutoff wavelength of single-mode fibers: An lnterlaboratory comparison,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 128–134, 1985.

M. Becker, T. Elsmann, I. Latka, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Chirped phase mask interferometer for fiber Bragg grating array inscription,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 2093–2098, 2015.

T. Mizunami, T. V. Djambova, T. Niiho, and S. Gupta, “Bragg gratings in multimode and few-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 230–235, 2000.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

C. M. Rollinson, S. A. Wade, B. P. Kouskousis, D. J. Kitcher, G. W. Baxter, and S. F. Collins, “Variations of the growth of harmonic reflections in fiber Bragg gratings fabricated using phase masks,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1259–1268, 2012.

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Ellis, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Haynes, M. M. Roth, H.-G. Löhmannsröben, A. Horton, J.-G. Cuby, T. Birks, J. Lawrence, P. Gillingham, S. Ryder, and C. Trinh, “A complex multi-notch astronomical filter to suppress the bright infrared sky,” Nat. Commun., vol. 2, no. 581, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Mahakud, O. Prakash, J. Kumar, S. V. Nakhe, and S. K. Dixit, “Analysis on the effect of UV beam intensity profile on the refractive index modulation in phase mask based fiber Bragg grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 285, pp. 5351–5358, 2012.

H. Sorensen, J. Canning, J. Laegsgaard, K. Hansen, and P. Varming, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun., vol. 270, pp. 207–210, 2007.

Opt. Exp. (7)

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, “Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 6894–6899, 2007.

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern—Spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 13996–14008, 2012.

Y. Liu, J. Lit, X. Gu, and L. Wei, “Fiber comb filters based on UV-writing Bragg gratings in graded-index multimode fibers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 13, pp. 8508–8513, 2005.

S. Dochow, I. Latka, M. Becker, R. Spittel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Graf, S. Brückner, S. Unger, M. Rothhardt, B. Dietzek, C. Krafft, and J. Popp, “Multicore fiber with integrated fiber Bragg gratings for background-free raman sensing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 18, pp. 20156–20169, 2012.

T. A. Birks, G. J. Pearce, and D. M. Bird, “Approximate band structure calculation for photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Exp., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 9483–9490, 2006.

J. Thomas, N. Jovanovic, R. G. Becker, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Withford, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and M. J. Steel, “Cladding mode coupling in highly localized fiber Bragg gratings: Modal properties and transmission spectra,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 325–341, 2011.

E. Lindley, S.-S. Min, S. Leon-Saval, N. Cvetojevic, J. Lawrence, S. Ellis, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Demonstration of uniform multicore fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Exp., vol. 22, no. 25, pp. 31575–31581, 2014.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. World (1)

P. J. Russell, J. L. Archambault, and L. Reekie, “Fiber gratings,” Phys. World, pp. 41–48, 1993.

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Haynes, T. A. Birks, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. L. Cruz, A. Diez, S. C. Ellis, D. Haynes, R. G. Krämer, B. J. Mangan, S. Min, D. F. Murphy, S. Nolte, J. C. Olaya, J. U. Thomas, C. Q. Trinh, A. Tünnermann, and C. Voigtländer, “Second generation OH suppression filters using multicore fibres,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8450, pp. 845011-1–845011-12, 2012.

Other (8)

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