Abstract

AlGaN-based materials own direct transition energy bands and wide bandgap and thus can be used in high-efficiency ultraviolet (UV) emitters and detectors. Over the past two decades, AlGaN-based materials and devices experienced rapid development. Deep ultraviolet AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with improved efficiency of 20.3% (at 275 nm) have been produced. An electron beam (EB)-pumped AlGaN-based UV light source at 238 nm, output power of 100 mW, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 40% has also been fabricated. UV stimulated emission from AlGaN multiple-quantum-wells laser diodes (LDs) using electrical pumping at room temperature has also been achieved at a wavelength of 336 nm. Compared with GaN-based blue and green LEDs and LDs, the efficiency of AlGaN-based UV LEDs and LDs is lower. Further optimization and improvements in both structure and fabrication are required to realize high-performance devices. In AlGaN-based UV photodetectors (PDs), gain as high as 104 orders of magnitude has been reported using the separated absorption and multiplication region avalanche photodiode structure but is still far from detecting the weak signal, and thus UV single-photon detectors with high detectivity is challenging. Recently, there has been extensive work in the nonlinear optical properties of AlGaN and AlGaN-based passive devices, such as waveguides and resonators. However, how to minimize the scattering and defect-related absorption needs to be further studied. In this review, first, approaches used to grow an AlGaN epilayer and p-type doping are introduced. Second, progress in AlGaN-based UV LEDs, EB-pumped light sources, LDs, PDs, passive devices, and the nonlinear optical properties are presented. Finally, an overview of potential future trends in AlGaN-based materials and UV devices is given.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Aluminum nitride-on-sapphire platform for integrated high-Q microresonators,” Opt. Express 25, 587–594 (2017).
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S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016).
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H. W. Shin, K. R. Son, and T. G. Kim, “Localized surface plasmon-enhanced light emission using platinum nanorings in deep ultraviolet-emitting AlGaN quantum wells,” Opt. Lett. 41, 88–91 (2016).
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C. G. He, Z. X. Qin, F. J. Xu, L. S. Zhang, M. X. Wang, M. J. Hou, W. W. Guo, S. Zhang, X. Q. Wang, and B. Shen, “Growth of high quality n-Al0.5Ga0.5N thick films by MOCVD,” Mater. Lett. 176, 298–300 (2016).
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R. Adhikari, T. Li, G. Capuzzo, and A. Bonanni, “Controlling a three dimensional electron slab of graded AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 022105 (2016).
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T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, R. Liu, D. J. Cai, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Improved p-type conductivity in Al-rich AlGaN using multidimensional Mg-doped superlattices,” Sci. Rep. 6, 21897 (2016).
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H. Miyake, G. Nishio, S. Suzuki, K. Hiramatsu, H. Fukuyama, J. Kaur, and N. Kuwano, “Annealing of an AlN buffer layer in N2–CO for growth of a high-quality AlN film on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 025501 (2016).
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H. Miyake, C. H. Lin, K. Tokoro, and K. Hiramatsu, “Preparation of high-quality AlN on sapphire by high-temperature face-to-face annealing,” J. Cryst. Growth 456, 155–159 (2016).
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B. T. Tran, N. Maeda, M. Jo, D. Inoue, T. Kikitsu, and H. Hirayama, “Performance improvement of AlN crystal quality grown on patterned Si(111) substrate for deep UV-LED applications,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35681 (2016).
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L. S. Zhang, F. J. Xu, J. M. Wang, C. G. He, W. W. Guo, M. G. Wang, B. W. Sheng, L. Lu, Z. X. Qin, X. Q. Wang, and B. Shen, “High-quality AlN epitaxy on nano-patterned sapphire substrates prepared by nano-imprint lithography,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35934 (2016).
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X. Chen, J. C. Yan, Y. Zhang, Y. D. Tian, Y. N. Guo, S. Zhang, T. B. Wei, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Improved crystalline quality of AlN by epitaxial lateral overgrowth using two-phase growth method for deep-ultraviolet stimulated emission,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 2300211 (2016).
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H. Fukuyama, H. Miyake, G. Nishio, S. Suzuki, and K. Hiramatsu, “Impact of high-temperature annealing of AlN layer on sapphire and its thermodynamic principle,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FL02 (2016).
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X. Rong, X. Q. Wang, S. V. Ivanov, X. H. Jiang, G. Chen, P. Wang, W. Y. Wang, C. G. He, T. Wang, T. Schulz, M. Albrecht, V. N. Jmerik, A. A. Toropov, V. V. Ratnikov, V. I. Kozlovsky, V. P. Martovitsky, P. Jin, F. J. Xu, X. L. Yang, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, J. J. Shi, and B. Shen, “High-output-power ultraviolet light source from quasi-2D GaN quantum structure,” Adv. Mater. 28, 7978–7983 (2016).
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F. Tabataba-Vakili, T. Wunderer, M. Kneissl, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, M. Batres, M. Feneberg, B. Vancil, and N. M. Johnson, “Dominance of radiative recombination from electron-beam-pumped deep-UV AlGaN multi-quantum-well heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 181105 (2016).
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X. W. Liu, C. Z. Sun, B. Xiong, J. Wang, L. Wang, Y. J. Han, Z. B. Hao, H. T. Li, Y. Luo, J. C. Yan, T. B. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. X. Wang, “Broadband tunable microwave photonic phase shifter with low RF power variation in a high-Q AlN microring,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3599–3602 (2016).
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I. Roland, Y. Zeng, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, B. Gayral, M. Gromovyi, J. Y. Duboz, F. Semond, M. P. de Micheli, and P. Boucaud, “Near-infrared III-nitride-on-silicon nanophotonic platform with microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 24, 9602–9610 (2016).
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W. Cai, Y. Yang, X. Gao, J. Yuan, W. Yuan, H. Zhu, and Y. Wang, “On-chip integration of suspended InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well devices with versatile functionalities,” Opt. Express 24, 6004–6010 (2016).
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Y. Yang, J. Yuan, Y. Li, X. Gao, and Y. Wang, “On-chip integration for in-plane video transmission using visible light,” Proc. SPIE 10019, 1001912 (2016).
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H. L. Wu, W. C. Wu, H. X. Zhang, Y. D. Chen, Z. S. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “All AlGaN epitaxial structure solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with high efficiency and high gain,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 052103 (2016).
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M. Soltani, R. Soref, T. Palacios, and D. Englund, “AlGaN/AlN integrated photonics platform for the ultraviolet and visible spectral range,” Opt. Express 24, 25415–25423 (2016).
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2015 (27)

X. F. Chen and T. Song, “Research progress of photonic integrated circuits,” Telecommun. Sci. 31, 2015282 (2015).

W. Jiang, Y. Wu, W. Lin, S. Li, and J. Kang, “Electro-optic coefficient enhancement of AlxGa1−xN via multiple field modulations,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 17707–17712 (2015).
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M. J. Hou, Z. X. Qin, C. G. He, L. S. Wei, F. J. Xu, X. Q. Wang, and B. Shen, “Study on AlGaN P-I-N-I-N solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with Al0.45Ga0.55N multiplication layer,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 11, 1053–1058 (2015).
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X. D. Wang, X. Y. Chen, L. W. Hou, B. B. Wang, W. Xie, and M. Pan, “Role of n-type AlGaN layer in photo response mechanism for separate absorption and multiplication (SAM) GaN/AlGaN avalanche photodiode,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1357–1365 (2015).
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L. L. Gao, “Investigation of back-illuminated AlGaN avalanche photodiodes with p-type graded AlxGa1−xN layer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 47, 1933–1940 (2015).
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J. Kim, M. H. Ji, T. Detchprohm, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. K. Sood, and N. K. Dhar, “AlxGa1−xN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with avalanche gain greater than 105,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 642–645 (2015).
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A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 141113 (2015).
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B. Thubthimthong, T. Sasaki, and K. Hane, “Asymmetrically and vertically coupled hybrid Si/GaN microring resonators for on-chip optical interconnects,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 7801511 (2015).
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X. Li, G. Y. Zhu, X. M. Gao, D. Bai, X. M. Huang, X. Cao, H. B. Zhu, K. Hane, and Y. J. Wang, “Suspended p–n junction InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well device with selectable functionality,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 2701407 (2015).
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S. V. Ivanov, V. N. Jmerik, D. V. Nechaev, V. I. Kozlovsky, and M. D. Tiberi, “E-beam pumped mid-UV sources based on MBE-grown AlGaN MQW,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 1011–1016 (2015).
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S. Zhao, X. Liu, S. Y. Woo, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “An electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the ultraviolet-C band,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 043101 (2015).
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K. H. Li, X. Liu, Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and Z. Mi, “Ultralow-threshold electrically injected AlGaN nanowire ultraviolet lasers on Si operating at low temperature,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 140–144 (2015).
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S. Zhao, S. Y. Woo, M. Bugnet, X. Liu, J. Kang, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Three-dimensional quantum confinement of charge carriers in self-organized AlGaN nanowires: a viable route to electrically injected deep ultraviolet lasers,” Nano Lett. 15, 7801–7807 (2015).
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Y. Aoki, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, A. Sugiyama, and H. Yoshida, “A 350-nm-band GaN/AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode on bulk GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 151103 (2015).
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H. C. Mary, A. A. Andrew, M. A. Andrew, L. S. Michael, and C. C. Karen, “Laser diodes with 353  nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 112702 (2015).
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X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, Z. M. Li, H. Song, H. Jiang, Y. R. Chen, G. Q. Miao, and Z. W. Zhang, “High spectral response of self-driven GaN-based detectors by controlling the contact barrier height,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16819 (2015).
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R. McClintock and M. Razeghi, “Ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 9555, 95550B (2015).
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Y. D. Tian, J. C. Yan, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. N. Guo, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, Q. J. Wang, E. Q. Guo, X. C. Wei, J. X. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Stimulated emission at 288  nm from silicon-doped AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well laser,” Opt. Express 23, 11334–11340 (2015).
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H. Y. Liu, Y. H. Wang, and W. C. Hsu, “Suppression of dark current on AlGaN/GaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors,” IEEE Sens. J. 15, 5202–5207 (2015).
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M. Brendel, M. Helbling, A. Knigge, F. Brunner, and M. Weyers, “Solar-blind AlGaN MSM photodetectors with 24% external quantum efficiency at 0  V,” Electron. Lett. 51, 1598–1600 (2015).
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M. Conroy, V. Z. Zubialevich, H. N. Li, N. Petkov, J. D. Holmes, and P. J. Parbrook, “Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN on self-assembled patterned nanorods,” J. Mater. Chem. C 3, 431–437 (2015).
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H. Jeon, C. Lee, C. Lee, M. Yang, S. N. Yi, H. S. Ahn, Y. M. Yu, S. C. Lee, S. W. Kim, and N. Sawaki, “Thick AlN epilayer grown by using the HVPE method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67, 643–647 (2015).
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X. H. Li, S. Wang, H. G. Xie, Y. O. Wei, T. T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Growth of high-quality AlN layers on sapphire substrates at relatively low temperatures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Phys. Status Solidi B 252, 1089–1095 (2015).
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Y. D. Chen, H. L. Wu, E. Han, G. L. Yue, Z. M. Chen, Z. S. Wu, G. Wang, and H. Jiang, “High hole concentration in p-type AlGaN by indium-surfactant-assisted Mg-delta doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 162102 (2015).
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S. C. Wang, X. Zhang, M. Zhu, F. D. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “Crack-free Si-doped n-AlGaN film grown on sapphire substrate with high-temperature AlN interlayer,” Optik 126, 3698–3702 (2015).
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I. H. Lee, L. W. Jang, and A. Y. Polyakov, “Performance enhancement of GaN-based light emitting diodes by the interaction with localized surface plasmons,” Nano Energy 13, 140–173 (2015).
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M. Shatalov, R. Jaina, A. Dobrinskya, W. H. Suna, and Y. Bilenko, “High efficiency UV LEDs on sapphire,” Proc. SPIE 9363, 93631M (2015).
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2014 (15)

M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, R. Jain, A. Lunev, and X. H. Hu, “High power AlGaN ultraviolet light emitters,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 084007 (2014).
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H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency DUV LEDs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 100209 (2014).
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S. X. Zhu, J. C. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. P. Zeng, Z. Si, P. Dong, J. M. Li, and J. X. Wang, “The effect of delta-doping on Si-doped Al rich n-AlGaN on AlN template grown by MOCVD,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11, 466–468 (2014).
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T. Baker, A. Mayo, Z. Veisi, P. Lu, and J. Schmitt, “High temperature HVPE of AlN on sapphire templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11, 373–376 (2014).
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P. Dong, J. C. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. X. Wang, J. P. Zeng, C. Geng, P. P. Cong, L. L. Sun, T. B. Wei, L. X. Zhao, Q. F. Yan, C. G. He, Z. X. Qin, and J. M. Li, “AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates with significant improvement in internal quantum efficiency,” J. Cryst. Growth 395, 9–13 (2014).
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T. C. Zheng, W. Lin, D. J. Cai, W. H. Yang, W. Jiang, H. Y. Chen, J. C. Li, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “High Mg effective incorporation in Al-rich AlxGa1−xN by periodic repetition of ultimate V/III ratio conditions,” Nano. Res. Lett. 9, 40 (2014).
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G. H. Bao, D. B. Li, X. J. Sun, M. M. Jiang, Z. M. Li, H. Song, H. Jiang, Y. R. Chen, G. Q. Miao, and Z. W. Zhang, “Enhanced spectral response of an AlGaN-based solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector with Al nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 22, 24286–24293 (2014).
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M. Martens, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, C. Reich, V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Netzel, C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, J. Rass, T. Wernicke, M. Bickermann, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Performance characteristics of UV-C AlGaN-based lasers grown on sapphire and bulk AlN substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 342–345 (2014).
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Y. S. Liu, Z. Lochner, T. T. Kao, M. M. Satter, X. H. Li, J. H. Ryou, S. C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, T. Detchprohm, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. Ponce, “Optically pumped AlGaN quantum-well lasers at sub-250  nm grown by MOCVD on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11, 258–260 (2014).
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X. H. Li, T. Detchprohm, T. T. Kao, M. M. Satter, S. C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, R. D. Dupuis, S. Wang, Y. O. Wei, H. Xie, A. M. Fischer, F. A. Ponce, T. Wernicke, C. Reich, M. Martens, and M. Kneissl, “Low-threshold stimulated emission at 249  nm and 256  nm from AlGaN-based multiple-quantum-well lasers grown on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 141106 (2014).
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H. Jung, R. Stoll, X. Guo, D. Fischer, and H. X. Tang, “Green, red, and IR frequency comb line generation from single IR pump in AlN microring resonator,” Optica 1, 396–399 (2014).
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M. Tchernycheva, A. Messanvi, A. de Luna Bugallo, G. Jacopin, P. Lavenus, L. Rigutti, H. Zhang, Y. Halioua, F. H. Julien, J. Eymery, and C. Durand, “Integrated photonic platform based on InGaN/GaN nanowire emitters and detectors,” Nano Lett. 14, 3515–3520 (2014).
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N. V. Trivino, M. Minkov, G. Urbinati, M. Galli, J. F. Carlin, R. Butte, V. Savona, and N. Grandjean, “Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 231119 (2014).
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Z. G. Shao, D. J. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, D. P. Cao, W. J. Luo, Y. D. Zheng, L. Li, and Z. H. Li, “High-gain AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 372–374 (2014).
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F. Wu, W. Tian, J. Zhang, S. Wang, Q. X. Wan, J. N. Dai, Z. H. Wu, J. T. Xu, X. Y. Li, Y. Y. Fang, and C. Q. Chen, “Double-resonance enhanced intersubband second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells,” Opt. Express 22, 14212–14220 (2014).
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2013 (23)

W. Lin, W. Jiang, N. Gao, D. J. Cai, S. P. Li, and J. Y. Kang, “Optical isotropization of anisotropic wurtzite Al-rich AlGaN via asymmetric modulation with ultrathin (GaN)m/(AlN)n superlattices,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 572–579 (2013).
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T. T. Wu, S. Y. Lo, H. M. Huang, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “High quality factor nonpolar GaN photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 191116 (2013).
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M. D. Brubaker, P. T. Blanchard, J. B. Schlager, A. W. Sanders, A. Roshko, S. M. Duff, J. M. Gray, V. M. Bright, N. A. Sanford, and K. A. Bertness, “On-chip optical interconnects made with gallium nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13, 374–377 (2013).
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Z. Lochner, T. T. Kao, Y. S. Liu, X. H. Li, M. M. Satter, S. C. Shen, P. D. Yoder, J. H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243  nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 101110 (2013).
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M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “Laser operation of nitride laser diodes with GaN well layer in 340  nm band,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 8–10 (2013).
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F. Fukuyo, S. Ochiai, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, H. Yoshida, and Y. Kobayashi, “Growth and characterization of AlGaN MQWs for electron-beam target for DUV light sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 01AF03 (2013).
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E. Cicek, R. McClintock, C. Y. Cho, B. Rahnema, and M. Razeghi, “AlxGa1−xN-based back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors with external quantum efficiency of 89%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 191108 (2013).
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Z. Q. Huang, J. F. Li, W. L. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with enhanced multiplication gain using back-illuminated structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 054101 (2013).
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J. Q. Xie, S. Mita, Z. Bryan, W. Guo, L. Hussey, B. Moody, R. Schlesser, R. Kirste, M. Gerhold, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Lasing and longitudinal cavity modes in photo-pumped deep ultraviolet AlGaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 171102 (2013).
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S. F. Fan, Z. X. Qin, C. G. He, M. J. Hou, X. Q. Wang, B. Shen, W. Li, W. Y. Wang, D. F. Mao, P. Jin, J. C. Yan, and P. Dong, “Optical investigation of strong exciton localization in high Al composition AlxGa1−xN alloys,” Opt. Express 21, 24497–24503 (2013).
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C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, A. Dittmar, K. Irmscher, A. Kwasniewski, F. Langhans, T. Neugut, and M. Bickermann, “Preparation of bulk AlN seeds by spontaneous nucleation of freestanding crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52, 08JA06 (2013).
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R. R. Sumathi, “Bulk AlN single crystal growth on foreign substrate and preparation of free-standing native seeds,” CrystEngComm 15, 2232–2240 (2013).
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E. Mokhov, I. Izmaylova, O. Kazarova, A. Wolfson, S. Nagalyuk, D. Litvin, A. Vasiliev, H. Helava, and Y. Makarov, “Specific features of sublimation growth of bulk AlN crystals on SiC wafers,” Phys. Status Solidi C 10, 445–448 (2013).
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V. Kueller, A. Knauer, U. Zeimer, M. Kneissl, and M. Weyers, “Controlled coalescence of MOVPE grown AlN during lateral overgrowth,” J. Cryst. Growth 368, 83–86 (2013).
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X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, Y. R. Chen, H. Song, H. Jiang, Z. M. Li, G. Q. Miao, and Z. Zhang, “In situ observation of two-step growth of AlN on sapphire using high-temperature metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” CrystEngComm 15, 6066–6073 (2013).
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S. B. Li, T. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. J. Yang, Z. M. Wang, Z. M. Wu, Z. Chen, and Y. D. Jiang, “Polarization induced hole doping in graded AlxGa1−xN (x = 0.7–1) layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 062108 (2013).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, H. Yanagi, and S. Inoue, “High p-type conduction in high-Al content Mg-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 012105 (2013).
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S. H. Park and J. I. Shim, “Carrier density dependence of polarization switching characteristics of light emission in deep-ultraviolet AlGaN/AlN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221109 (2013).
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Z. Q. Liu, A. G. Melton, X. Y. Yi, J. W. Wang, B. Kucukgok, J. Kang, N. Lu, J. X. Wang, J. M. Li, and L. Ferguson, “Design of shallow acceptors in GaN through zinc-magnesium codoping: first-principles calculation,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 042104 (2013).
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J. R. Grandusky, J. F. Chen, S. R. Gibb, M. C. Mendrick, C. G. Moe, L. Rodak, G. A. Garrett, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalte, “270  nm pseudomorphic UV LEDs with over 60  mW continuous wave output power,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032101 (2013).
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T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, H. Yanagi, B. Moody, S. Mita, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Performance and reliability of DUV LEDs fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 092103 (2013).
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N. Maeda and H. Hirayama, “Realization of high-efficiency deep-UV LEDs using transparent p-AlGaN contact layer,” Phys. Status Solidi C 10, 1521–1524 (2013).
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J. F. Chen, J. R. Grandusky, C. G. Moe, M. C. Mendrick, M. Jamil, S. R. Gibb, and L. J. Schowalter, “High power pseudomorphic mid ultraviolet light emitting diodes with improved efficiency and lifetime,” Proc. SPIE 8986, 269–274 (2013).
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2012 (16)

T. Mino, H. Hirayama, T. Takano, N. Noguchi, and K. Tsubaki, “Highly-uniform 260  nm-band AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes developed by 2-inch × 3 MOVPE system,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 749–752 (2012).
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T. Kinoshita, K. Hironaka, T. Obata, T. Nagashima, R. Dalmau, R. Schlesser, B. Moody, J. Q. Xie, S. Inoue, Y. Kumagai, A. Koukitu, and Z. Sitar, “Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN substrates prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 122101 (2012).
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M. Shatalov, W. H. Sun, A. Lunev, X. H. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. W. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet LEDs with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 082101 (2012).
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T. M. Altahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1−xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042103 (2012).
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H. Kawanishi and T. Tomizawa, “Carbon-doped p-type (0001) plane AlGaN (Al = 6-55%) with high hole density,” Phys. Status Solidi B 249, 459–463 (2012).
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M. E. Zvanut, U. R. Sunay, J. Dashdorj, W. R. Willoughby, and A. A. Allerman, “Mg-hydrogen interaction in AlGaN alloys,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620L (2012).
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M. L. Nakarmi, B. Cai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Three-step growth method for high quality AlN epilayers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209, 126–129 (2012).
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V. Kueller, A. Knauer, C. Reich, A. Mogilatenko, M. Weyers, J. Stellmach, T. Wernicke, M. Kneissl, Z. Yang, C. L. Chua, and N. M. Johnson, “Modulated epitaxial lateral overgrowth of AlN for efficient UV LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1603–1605 (2012).
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Y. Huang, D. J. Chen, H. Lu, K. X. Dong, R. Zhang, Y. D. Zheng, L. Li, and Z. H. Li, “Back-illuminated separate absorption and multiplication AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 253516 (2012).
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D. B. Li, X. J. Sun, H. Song, Z. M. Li, Y. R. Chen, H. Jiang, and G. Q. Miao, “Realization of a high-performance GaN UV detector by nanoplasmonic enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 24, 845–849 (2012).
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T. Matsumoto, S. Iwayama, T. Saito, Y. Kawakami, F. Kubo, and H. Amano, “Handheld deep ultraviolet emission device based on AlN QWs and graphene nanoneedle field emitters,” Opt. Express 20, 24320–24329 (2012).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, J. E. Northrup, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, M. Kneissl, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, M. Wraback, B. Moody, H. S. Craft, R. Schlesser, R. F. Dalmau, and Z. Sitar, “Optically pumped UV lasers grown on bulk AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9, 822–825 (2012).
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C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, and H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, silicon integrated, aluminum nitride photonic circuits and their use for electro-optic signal processing,” Nano Lett. 12, 3562–3568 (2012).
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W. H. Pernice, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, “High Q micro-ring resonators fabricated from polycrystalline aluminum nitride films for near infrared and visible photonics,” Opt. Express 20, 12261–12269 (2012).
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E. Bellotti and F. Bertazzi, “A numerical study of carrier impact ionization in AlxGa1−xN,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103711 (2012).
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A. V. Sampath, R. W. Enck, C. S. Gallinat, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “III-nitride/SiC avalanche photodetectors for enabling compact biological agent identification and detection,” Proc. SPIE 8376, 837600 (2012).
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2011 (12)

Q. G. Zhou, D. C. McIntosh, Z. W. Lu, J. C. Campbell, A. V. Sampath, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN/SiC avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131110 (2011).
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C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19, 10462–10470 (2011).
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T. Wunderer, C. L. Chua, Z. H. Yang, J. E. Northrup, N. M. Johnson, G. A. Garrett, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “Pseudomorphically grown ultraviolet C photopumped lasers on bulk AlN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 092101 (2011).
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D. B. Li, X. J. Sun, H. Song, Z. M. Li, Y. R. Chen, G. Q. Miao, and H. Jiang, “Influence of threading dislocations on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 011108 (2011).
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X. J. Sun, D. B. Li, H. Jiang, Z. M. Li, H. Song, Y. R. Chen, and G. Q. Miao, “Improved performance of GaN metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detectors by depositing SiO2 nanoparticles on a GaN surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 121117 (2011).
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D. B. Li, X. J. Sun, H. Song, Z. M. Li, H. Jiang, Y. R. Chen, G. Q. Miao, and B. Shen, “Effect of asymmetric Schottky barrier on GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal ultraviolet detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 261102 (2011).
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K. Forghani, M. Klein, F. Lipski, S. Schwaiger, J. Hertkorn, R. A. R. Leute, F. Scholz, M. Feneberg, B. Neuschl, K. Thonke, O. Klein, U. Kaiser, R. Gutt, and T. Passow, “High quality AlGaN epilayers grown on sapphire using SiNx interlayers,” J. Cryst. Growth 315, 216–219 (2011).
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M. Kim, T. Fujita, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 092102 (2011).
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R. Dalmau, B. Moody, J. Q. Xie, R. Collazo, and Z. Sitar, “Characterization of dislocation arrays in AlN single crystals grown by PVT,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 1545–1547 (2011).
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K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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Y. Aoyagi, M. Takeuchi, S. Iwai, and H. Hirayama, “High hole carrier concentration realized by alternative co-doping technique in metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 112110 (2011).
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Y. Shimahara, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, F. Fukuyo, T. Okada, H. Takaoka, and H. Yoshida, “Fabrication of deep-ultraviolet-light-source tube using Si-doped AlGaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 042103 (2011).
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2010 (15)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26, 014036 (2010).
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A. Fujioka, T. Misaki, T. Murayama, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Improvement in output power of 280-nm deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode by using AlGaN multi quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 041001 (2010).
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H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchin, and N. Kamata, “Development of 230–270  nm AlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs,” Electron. Commun. Jpn. 93, 24–33 (2010).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Tsukada, T. Maeda, and N. Kamata, “Marked enhancement in the efficiency of deep-ultraviolet AlGaN light-emitting diodes by using a multiquantum-barrier electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 031002 (2010).
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Z. Y. Xu, Z. X. Qin, L. W. Sang, Y. Z. Zhang, B. Shen, G. Y. Zhang, L. Zhao, X. F. Zhang, C. J. Cheng, and W. G. Sun, “Effect of indium ambient on electrical properties of Mg-doped AlxGa1−xN,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 127304 (2010).
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C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255–280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
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J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. X. Lian, H. L. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327, 60–64 (2010).
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L. Zhang, K. Ding, J. C. Yan, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, T. B. Wei, Y. Y. Li, B. J. Sun, R. F. Duan, and J. M. Li, “Three-dimensional hole gas induced by polarization in (0001)-oriented metal-face III-nitride structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 062103 (2010).
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J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and HH bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN QW lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111105 (2010).
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Z. G. Herro, D. Zhuang, R. Schlesser, and Z. Sitar, “Growth of AlN single crystalline boules,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 2519–2521 (2010).
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R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN/AlN quantum wells fabricated by modified migration enhanced epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi C 7, 2111–2114 (2010).
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L. Sun, J. L. Chen, J. F. Li, and H. Jiang, “AlGaN solar-blind avalanche photodiodes with high multiplication gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 191103 (2010).
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O. Takao, G. B. Ryan, K. Ken, F. Mitsuru, and K. Yoichi, “100  mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminium-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4, 767–770 (2010).
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R. McClintock, E. Cicek, Z. Vashaei, C. Bayram, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride-based avalanche photo detectors,” Proc. SPIE 7780, 77801B (2010).
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E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, A. Schleife, F. Bechstedt, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Free-carrier absorption in nitrides from first principles,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 241201 (2010).
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2009 (11)

Y. Dong, B. Tian, T. J. Kempa, and C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial group III—nitride nanowire photovoltaics,” Nano Lett. 9, 2183–2187 (2009).
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Q. Wang, Y. P. Gong, J. F. Zhang, J. Bai, F. Ranalli, and T. Wang, “Stimulated emission at 340  nm from AlGaN multiple quantum well grown using high temperature AlN buffer technologies on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161904 (2009).
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M. Kneissl, Z. H. Yang, M. Teepe, and M. J. Noble, “Ultraviolet laser diodes on sapphire and AlN substrates,” Proc. SPIE 7230, 72300E (2009).
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H. Yoshida, M. Kuwabara, Y. Yamashita, Y. Takagi, K. Uchiyama, and H. Kan, “AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region,” New J. Phys. 11, 125013 (2009).
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K. H. Lee, P. C. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. C. Wang, C. L. Yu, and S. L. Wu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier UV photodetectors with a GaN sandwich layer,” IEEE Sens. J. 9, 814–819 (2009).
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H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222–282  nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1176–1182 (2009).
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H. Hirayama, J. Norimatsu, N. Noguchi, S. Fujikawa, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “Milliwatt power 270  nm-band AlGaN deep-UV LEDs fabricated on ELO-AlN templates,” Phys. Status Solidi C 6, S474–S477 (2009).
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S. M. Kim, T. Y. Park, S. J. Park, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, Y. C. Park, and G. Y. Jung, “Nanopatterned aluminum nitride template for high efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 17, 14791–14799 (2009).
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X. W. Zhou, P. X. Li, S. R. Xu, and Y. Hao, “Growth and electrical properties of high-quality Mg-doped p-type Al0.2Ga0.8N films,” J. Semicond. 30, 043002 (2009).
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J. C. Li, W. H. Yang, S. P. Li, H. Y. Chen, D. Y. Liu, and J. Y. Kang, “Enhancement of p-type conductivity by modifying the internal electric field in Mg- and Si-δ-codoped AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 151113 (2009).
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K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3, 591–594 (2009).
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2008 (10)

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231-261  nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light realized using a thin quantum well and AlN buffer with reduced threading dislocation density,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 051101 (2008).
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T. M. Altahtamouni, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Si-doped high Al-content AlGaN epilayers with improved quality and conductivity using indium as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092105 (2008).
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R. Jain, W. Sun, J. Yang, M. Shatalov, X. Hu, A. Sattu, A. Lnev, J. Deng, I. Shturm, Y. Belenko, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Migration enhanced lateral epitaxial overgrowth of AlN and AlGaN for high reliability deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051113 (2008).
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R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Initial nucleation of AlN grown directly on sapphire substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241905 (2008).
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R. T. Bondokov, S. G. Mueller, K. E. Morgan, G. A. Slack, S. Schujman, M. C. Wood, J. A. Smart, and L. J. Schowalter, “Large-area AlN substrates for electronic applications: an industrial perspective,” J. Cryst. Growth 310, 4020–4026 (2008).
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S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
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H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “Demonstration of an ultraviolet 336  nm AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241106 (2008).
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H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2, 551–554 (2008).
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P. Chen, Y. H. Zuo, X. G. Tu, D. J. Cai, S. P. Li, J. Y. Kang, Y. D. Yu, J. Z. Yu, and Q. M. Wang, “Interaction between the intrinsic second- and third-order optical fields in an Al0.53Ga0.47N/GaN heterostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161112 (2008).
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P. Srivastava and S. Singh, “Linear and second-order optical response of different GaN nanowires,” Physica E 40, 2742–2746 (2008).
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2007 (6)

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A 899, L3–L4 (2007).
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H. Yoshida, Y. Takagi, M. Kuwabara, H. Amano, and H. Kan, “Entirely crack-free ultraviolet GaN/AlGaN laser diodes grown on 2-in. sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5782–5784 (2007).
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T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, “AlxGa1−xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
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D. B. Li, M. Aoki, T. Katsuno, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and T. Shibata, “Influence of growth conditions on Al incorporation to AlxGa1−xN (x > 0.4) grown by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 298, 372–374 (2007).
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M. Imura, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Annihilation mechanism of threading dislocations in AlN grown by growth form modification method using V/III ratio,” J. Cryst. Growth 300, 136–140 (2007).
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K. Balakrishnan, A. Bandoh, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Influence of high temperature in the growth of low dislocation content AlN bridge layers on patterned 6H-SiC substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L307–L310 (2007).
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2006 (4)

M. Imura, K. Nakano, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “High-temperature metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire by multi transition growth mode method varying V/III ratio,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8639–8643 (2006).
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Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminum nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441, 325–328 (2006).
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S. Butun, T. Tut, B. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Deep-ultraviolet Al0.75Ga0.25N photodiodes with low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 123503 (2006).
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M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214  nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1286–L1288 (2006).
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2005 (6)

T. Tut, S. Butun, B. Butun, M. Gokkavas, H. B. Yu, and E. Ozbay, “Solar-blind AlxGa1−xN-based avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223502 (2005).
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R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Minder, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “Avalanche multiplication in AlGaN based solar-blind photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241123 (2005).
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N. A. Sanford, A. V. Davydov, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. S. Park, J. Y. Han, and R. J. Molnar, “Measurement of second order susceptibilities of GaN and AlGaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053512 (2005).
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S. R. Jeon, Z. Ren, G. Cui, J. Su, M. Gherasimova, and J. Han, “Investigation of Mg doping in high-Al content p-type AlxGa1−xN (0.3 < x < 0.5),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 082107 (2005).
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M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 092108 (2005).
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W. H. Sun, J. P. Zhang, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, R. Liu, and F. A. Ponce, “Fine structure of AlN/AlGaN superlattices grown by pulsed atomic-layer epitaxy for dislocation filtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211915 (2005).
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2004 (11)

C. G. Van de Walle and J. Neugebauer, “First-principles calculations for defects and impurities: applications to III-nitrides,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3851–3879 (2004).
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W. H. Sun, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, V. Mandavilli, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280  nm light-emitting diodes with continuous wave powers in excess of 1.5  mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 531–533 (2004).
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J. P. Zhang, X. Hu, Y. Bilenko, J. Deng, A. Lunev, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280  nm light-emitting diodes with continuous-wave power exceeding 1  mW at 25  mA,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5532–5534 (2004).
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W. H. Sun, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, Y. Lee, and S. Wu, “Continuous wave milliwatt power AlGaN light emitting diodes at 280  nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1419–L1421 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838–1840 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, J. P. Zhang, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, V. Mandavilli, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “High-efficiency 269  nm emission deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4762–4764 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, “250  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2175–2177 (2004).
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R. McClintock, A. Yasan, K. Mayes, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High quantum efficiency AlGaN solar-blind pin photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1248–1250 (2004).
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P. C. Chang, C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, C. L. Yu, P. C. Chen, and C. H. Wang, “AlGaN/GaN MSM photodetectors with photo-CVD annealed Ni/Au semi-transparent contacts,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1354–1357 (2004).
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K. Lida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9  nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L499–L500 (2004).
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T. Takano, Y. Narita, A. Horiuchi, and H. Kawanishi, “Room-temperature deep-ultraviolet lasing at 241.5  nm of AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3567–3569 (2004).
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2003 (14)

M. Kneissl, D. W. Treat, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, and N. M. Johnson, “Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2386–2388 (2003).
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S. Masui, Y. Matsuyama, T. Yanamoto, T. Kozaki, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “365  nm ultraviolet laser diodes composed of quaternary AlInGaN alloy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1318–L1320 (2003).
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I. S. Seo, I. H. Lee, Y. J. Park, and C. R. Lee, “Characteristics of UV photodetector fabricated by Al0.3Ga0.7N/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 252, 51–57 (2003).
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Y. Toda, T. Matsubara, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, K. Hoshino, T. Someya, and Y. Arakawa, “Two-photon absorption and multiphoton-induced photoluminescence of bulk GaN excited below the middle of the band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4714–4716 (2003).
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T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1231–1233 (2003).
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M. L. Nakarmi, K. H. Kim, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced p-type conduction in GaN and AlGaN by Mg-δ-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3041–3043 (2003).
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N. A. Sanford, L. H. Robins, A. V. Davydov, A. Shapiro, D. V. Tsvetkov, A. V. Dmitriev, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Refractive index study of AlxGa1−xN films grown on sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2980–2991 (2003).
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S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, “Semiconductor carbon nanotubes as ultrafast switching materials for optical telecommunications,” Adv. Mater. 15, 534–537 (2003).
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K. B. Nam, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Mg acceptor level in AlN probed by deep ultraviolet photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 878–880 (2003).
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D. Fritsch, H. Schmidt, and M. Grundmann, “Band-structure pseudopotential calculation of zinc-blende and wurtzite AlN, GaN, and InN,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235205 (2003).
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I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675–3696 (2003).
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Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Miyake, and K. Hiramatsu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth and study of stress in AlGaN using epitaxial AlN as underlying layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L572–L574 (2003).
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P. Cantu, S. Keller, and U. K. Mishra, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of highly conductive Al0.65Ga0.35N films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3683–3685 (2003).
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Y. Kumagai, T. Yamane, T. Miyaji, H. Murakami, Y. Kangawa, and A. Koukitu, “Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of AlN: thermodynamic analysis of aluminum source and its application to growth,” Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 2498–2501 (2003).
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2002 (6)

J. P. Zhang, M. A. Khan, W. H. Sun, H. M. Wang, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, E. Kuokstis, and J. W. Yang, “Pulsed atomic-layer epitaxy of ultrahigh-quality AlxGa1−xN structures for deep ultraviolet emissions below 230  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4392–4394 (2002).
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J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3542–3544 (2002).
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H. M. Wang, J. P. Zhang, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlN/AlGaN superlattices as dislocation filter for low-threading-dislocation thick AlGaN layers on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 604–606 (2002).
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G. Kipshidze, V. Kuryatkov, B. Borisov, Y. Kudryavtsev, R. Asomoza, S. Nikishin, and H. Temkin, “Mg and O codoping in p-type GaN and AlxGa1−xN (0 < x < 0.08),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2910–2912 (2002).
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J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210–1212 (2002).
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V. Pačebutas, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Photoconductive Z-scan measurement of multiphoton absorption in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6930–6932 (2002).
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2001 (5)

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4118–4120 (2001).
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H. K. Cho, J. Y. Lee, S. R. Jeon, and G. M. Yang, “Influence of Mg doping on structural defects in AlGaN layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3788–3790 (2001).
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E. L. Waldron, J. W. Graff, and E. F. Schubert, “Improved mobilities and resistivities in modulation-doped p-type AlGaN/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2737–2739 (2001).
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S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 83–91 (2001).
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M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 987–999 (2001).
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2000 (9)

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1−xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1252–1254 (2000).
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K. Kumakura, T. Makimoto, and N. Kobayashi, “Enhanced hole generation in Mg-doped AlGaN/GaN superlattices due to piezoelectric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2428–2430 (2000).
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K. S. Kim, M. S. Han, G. M. Yang, C. J. Youn, H. J. Lee, H. K. Cho, and J. Y. Lee, “Codoping characteristics of Zn with Mg in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1123–1125 (2000).
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A. Kinoshita, H. Hirayama, M. Ainoya, Y. Aoyagi, and A. Hirata, “Room-temperature operation at 333  nm of Al0.03Ga0.97N/Al0.25Ga0.75N quantumwell light-emitting diodes with Mg-doped superlattices layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 175–177 (2000).
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H. Hirayama, Y. Enomoto, A. Kinoshita, A. Hirata, and Y. Aoyagi, “230 to 250  nm intense emission from AlN-AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 180, 157–161 (2000).
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S. Krishnamurthy, K. Nashold, and A. Sher, “Two-photon absorption in GaN, GaInN, and GaAlN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 355–357 (2000).
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C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, and F. J. Kao, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
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C. K. Sun, S. W. Chu, S. P. Tai, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Scanning second-harmonic/third-harmonic generation microscopy of gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2331–2333 (2000).
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D. Walker, V. Kumar, K. Mi, P. Sandvik, P. Kung, X. H. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, “Solar-blind AlGaN photodiodes with very low cutoff wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 403–405 (2000).
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1999 (7)

E. Monroy, M. Hamilton, D. Walker, P. Kung, F. J. Sánchez, and M. Razeghi, “High-quality visible-blind AlGaN p-i-n photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1171–1173 (1999).
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E. Monroy, F. Calle, E. Munoz, and F. Omnes, “AlGaN metal-semiconductor-metal photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3401–3403 (1999).
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Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3524–3526 (1999).
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K. C. Zeng, L. Dai, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical resonance modes in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well microring cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2563–2565 (1999).
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T. Nishida and N. Kobayashi, “346  nm emission from AlGaN multi-quantum-well light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A 176, 45–48 (1999).
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P. Kozodoy, M. Hansen, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Enhanced Mg doping efficiency in Al0.2Ga0.8N/GaN superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3681–3683 (1999).
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A. M. Streltsov, K. D. Moll, A. L. Gaeta, P. Kung, D. Walker, and M. Razeghi, “Pulse autocorrelation measurements based on two-and three-photon conductivity in a GaN photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3778–3780 (1999).
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1998 (3)

J. Han, M. H. Crawford, R. J. Shul, J. J. Figiel, M. Banas, L. Zhang, Y. K. Song, H. Zhou, and A. V. Nurmikko, “AlGaN/GaN quantum well ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1688–1690 (1998).
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D. Tonova, A. Paneva, and B. Pantchev, “Determination of refractive index profiles of gradient optical waveguides by ellipsometry,” Opt. Commun. 150, 121–125 (1998).
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A. Osinsky, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, and Q. Chen, “Avalanche breakdown and breakdown luminescence in p-π-n GaN diodes,” Electron. Lett. 34, 691–692 (1998).
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1997 (4)

J. L. P. Hughes, Y. Wang, and J. E. Sipe, “Calculation of linear and second-order optical response in wurtzite GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 13630–13640 (1997).
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T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9571–9576 (1997).
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F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56, R10024 (1997).
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Y. Ohba, H. Yoshida, and R. Sato, “Growth of high-quality AlN, GaN and AlGaN with atomically smooth surfaces on sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, L1565–L1567 (1997).
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1996 (5)

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Role of hydrogen in doping of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1829–1831 (1996).
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B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532  nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 587–589 (1996).
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D. Walker, X. Zhang, P. Kung, A. Saxler, S. Javadpour, J. Xu, and M. Razeghi, “AlGaN ultraviolet photoconductors grown on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2100–2101 (1996).
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B. W. Lim, Q. C. Chen, J. Y. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “High responsivity intrinsic photoconductors based on AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3761–3762 (1996).
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T. J. Schmidt, X. H. Yang, W. Shan, J. J. Song, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Room-temperature stimulated emission in GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1820–1822 (1996).
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1995 (1)

M. Suzuki, T. Uenoyama, and A. Yanase, “First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 8132–8139 (1995).
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1993 (3)

H. Amano, N. Watanabe, N. Koide, and I. Aksaki, “Room-temperature low-threshold surface-stimulated emission by optical pumping from Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1000–L1002 (1993).
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G. Morthier, “Influence of the carrier density dependence of the absorption on the harmonic distortion in semiconductor lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 16–19 (1993).
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J. Miragliotta, D. K. Wickenden, T. J. Kistenmacher, and W. A. Bryden, “Linear- and nonlinear-optical properties of GaN thin films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1447–1456 (1993).
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1992 (2)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on p-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L139–L142 (1992).
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I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Conductivity control of AlGaN fabrication of AlGaN/GaN multi-heterostructure and their application to UV/blue light emitting devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 242, 383 (1992).
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1991 (1)

A. R. Denton and N. W. Ashcroft, “Vegard’s law,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 3161–3164 (1991).
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1990 (2)

K. Ito, K. Hiramatsu, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Preparation of AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructure by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 104, 533–538 (1990).
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H. Amano, T. Asahi, and I. Akasaki, “Stimulated emission near ultraviolet at room temperature from a GaN film grown on sapphire by MOVPE using an AlN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L205–L206 (1990).
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1989 (1)

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Aksaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2112–L2114 (1989).
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1988 (1)

Y. Koide, N. Itoh, K. Itoh, N. Wawaki, and I. Akasaki, “Effect of AlN buffer layer on AlGaN/α-Al2O3 heteroepitaxial growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1156–1161 (1988).
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1985 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, and T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 244613 (1985).
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1983 (1)

M. A. Khan, R. A. Skogman, R. G. Schulze, and M. Gershenzon, “Properties and ion implantation of AlxGa1−xN epitaxial single crystal films prepared by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 492–494 (1983).
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1982 (1)

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Properties of AlGaN films prepared by reactive molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 6844–6848 (1982).
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1978 (1)

B. Baranov, L. Daweritz, V. B. Gutan, G. Jungk, H. Neumann, and H. Raidt, “Growth and properties of AlGaN epitaxial layers,” Phys. Status Solidi A 49, 629–636 (1978).
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1976 (1)

R. Rutz, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence in AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 379–381 (1976).
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1973 (1)

W. M. Yim, E. J. Stofko, P. J. Zanzucchi, J. I. Pankove, and M. Ettenberg, “Epitaxially grown AlN and its optical band gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 44, 292–296 (1973).
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1971 (3)

D. K. Wickenden, K. R. Faulkner, R. W. Brander, and B. J. Isherwood, “Growth of epitaxial layers of gallium nitride on silicon carbide and corundum substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 9, 158–164 (1971).
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H. M. Manasevit, F. M. Erdmann, and W. I. Simpson, “The use of metalorganics in the preparation of semiconductor materials IV. The nitrides of aluminum and gallium,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 1864–1868 (1971).
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R. Dingle, K. L. Shaklee, R. F. Leheny, and R. B. Zetterstrom, “Stimulated emission and laser action in gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 5–7 (1971).
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1969 (1)

S. E. Miller, “Integrated optics: an introduction,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 48, 2059–2069 (1969).
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1964 (1)

J. Pastrnak and L. Roskovcova, “Morphologie und Wachstumsmechanismus von AIN-Einkristallen,” Phys. Status Solidi 7, 331–338 (1964).
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1960 (1)

K. M. Taylor and C. Lenie, “Some properties of aluminum nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 107, 308–314 (1960).
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R. Adhikari, T. Li, G. Capuzzo, and A. Bonanni, “Controlling a three dimensional electron slab of graded AlxGa1−xN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 022105 (2016).
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Adivarahan, V.

M. Shatalov, M. Gaevski, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “Room-temperature stimulated emission from AlN at 214  nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1286–L1288 (2006).
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W. H. Sun, J. P. Zhang, V. Adivarahan, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, V. Mandavilli, J. W. Yang, and M. A. Khan, “AlGaN-based 280  nm light-emitting diodes with continuous wave powers in excess of 1.5  mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 531–533 (2004).
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W. H. Sun, V. Adivarahan, M. Shatalov, Y. Lee, and S. Wu, “Continuous wave milliwatt power AlGaN light emitting diodes at 280  nm,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L1419–L1421 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1838–1840 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, J. P. Zhang, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, V. Mandavilli, R. Gaska, and M. A. Khan, “High-efficiency 269  nm emission deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4762–4764 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, W. H. Sun, A. Chitnis, M. Shatalov, S. Wu, H. P. Maruska, and M. A. Khan, “250  nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2175–2177 (2004).
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Agrawal, G.

M. Premaratne and G. Agrawal, Light Propagation in Gain Media Optical Amplifiers (Cambridge University, 2011).

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H. Jeon, C. Lee, C. Lee, M. Yang, S. N. Yi, H. S. Ahn, Y. M. Yu, S. C. Lee, S. W. Kim, and N. Sawaki, “Thick AlN epilayer grown by using the HVPE method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 67, 643–647 (2015).
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Ainoya, M.

A. Kinoshita, H. Hirayama, M. Ainoya, Y. Aoyagi, and A. Hirata, “Room-temperature operation at 333  nm of Al0.03Ga0.97N/Al0.25Ga0.75N quantumwell light-emitting diodes with Mg-doped superlattices layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 175–177 (2000).
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Akasaki, I.

A. Yoshikawa, T. Nagatomi, T. Morishita, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, and I. Akasaki, “High-quality AlN film grown on a nanosized concave-convex surface sapphire substrate by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 162102 (2017).
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S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016).
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K. Ban, J. Yamamoto, K. Takeda, K. Ide, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Internal quantum efficiency of whole-composition-range AlGaN multiquantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 052101 (2011).
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M. Kim, T. Fujita, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 092102 (2011).
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C. Pernot, M. Kim, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, I. Akasaki, and H. Amano, “Improved efficiency of 255–280  nm AlGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 061004 (2010).
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M. Imura, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “Annihilation mechanism of threading dislocations in AlN grown by growth form modification method using V/III ratio,” J. Cryst. Growth 300, 136–140 (2007).
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K. Balakrishnan, A. Bandoh, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Influence of high temperature in the growth of low dislocation content AlN bridge layers on patterned 6H-SiC substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L307–L310 (2007).
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M. Imura, K. Nakano, N. Fujimoto, N. Okada, K. Balakrishnan, K. Balakrishnan, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, T. Noro, T. Takagi, and A. Bandoh, “High-temperature metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire by multi transition growth mode method varying V/III ratio,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8639–8643 (2006).
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K. Lida, T. Kawashima, A. Miyazaki, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “350.9  nm UV laser diode grown on low-dislocation-density AlGaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L499–L500 (2004).
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S. Kamiyama, M. Iwaya, N. Hayashi, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, S. Watanabe, Y. Kaneko, and N. Yamada, “Low-temperature-deposited AlGaN interlayer for improvement of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure,” J. Cryst. Growth 223, 83–91 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Akasaki and H. Amano, “Conductivity control of AlGaN fabrication of AlGaN/GaN multi-heterostructure and their application to UV/blue light emitting devices,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 242, 383 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, T. Asahi, and I. Akasaki, “Stimulated emission near ultraviolet at room temperature from a GaN film grown on sapphire by MOVPE using an AlN buffer layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L205–L206 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Ito, K. Hiramatsu, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Preparation of AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructure by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth 104, 533–538 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Koide, N. Itoh, K. Itoh, N. Wawaki, and I. Akasaki, “Effect of AlN buffer layer on AlGaN/α-Al2O3 heteroepitaxial growth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1156–1161 (1988).
[Crossref]

Aksaki, I.

H. Amano, N. Watanabe, N. Koide, and I. Aksaki, “Room-temperature low-threshold surface-stimulated emission by optical pumping from Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1000–L1002 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Aksaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2112–L2114 (1989).
[Crossref]

Aktas, Ö.

T. J. Schmidt, X. H. Yang, W. Shan, J. J. Song, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Ö. Aktas, A. Botchkarev, and H. Morkoç, “Room-temperature stimulated emission in GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1820–1822 (1996).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

X. Rong, X. Q. Wang, S. V. Ivanov, X. H. Jiang, G. Chen, P. Wang, W. Y. Wang, C. G. He, T. Wang, T. Schulz, M. Albrecht, V. N. Jmerik, A. A. Toropov, V. V. Ratnikov, V. I. Kozlovsky, V. P. Martovitsky, P. Jin, F. J. Xu, X. L. Yang, Z. X. Qin, W. K. Ge, J. J. Shi, and B. Shen, “High-output-power ultraviolet light source from quasi-2D GaN quantum structure,” Adv. Mater. 28, 7978–7983 (2016).
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Alkeev, N. V.

S. V. Averine, P. I. Kuznetzov, V. A. Zhitov, and N. V. Alkeev, “Solar-blind MSM-photodetectors based on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures grown by MOCVD,” Solid-State Electron. 52, 618–624 (2008).
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Allerman, A. A.

M. E. Zvanut, U. R. Sunay, J. Dashdorj, W. R. Willoughby, and A. A. Allerman, “Mg-hydrogen interaction in AlGaN alloys,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620L (2012).
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Alonzo, M.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A 899, L3–L4 (2007).
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Altahtamouni, T. M.

T. M. Altahtamouni, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Optical polarization in c-plane Al-rich AlN/AlxGa1−xN single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042103 (2012).
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T. M. Altahtamouni, A. Sedhain, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Si-doped high Al-content AlGaN epilayers with improved quality and conductivity using indium as a surfactant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092105 (2008).
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Amano, H.

S. Nagai, K. Yamada, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Ito, N. Morishima, K. Aosaki, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 082101 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Matsumoto, S. Iwayama, T. Saito, Y. Kawakami, F. Kubo, and H. Amano, “Handheld deep ultraviolet emission device based on AlN QWs and graphene nanoneedle field emitters,” Opt. Express 20, 24320–24329 (2012).
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M. Kim, T. Fujita, S. Fukahori, T. Inazu, C. Pernot, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 092102 (2011).
[Crossref]

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