Abstract

A fully functional miniaturized projection head below 5cm3 is presented, using computer-generated holograms dynamically displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. Spatial division of the modulator is used for color projection without color breakup, and specially designed, anti-reflection coated prisms ensure simple light paths with small losses. Real-time calculations are performed on a remote server with on-the-fly compression of holographic fringes. Cloud computing allows 1 W of local electrical power usage and apparent image brightness equivalent to 15–500 lm/W efficiency, depending on the displayed content. The properties of the projector allow future applications in handheld displays.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (3)

P. Kochańska and M. Makowski, “Compression of computer-generated holograms in image projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 9, 60–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. K. Albahadily, V. Yu. Tsviatkou, and V. K. Kanapelka, “Grayscale image compression using bit plane slicing and developed RLE algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 6, 309–314 (2017).

C. Chang, Y. Qi, J. Wu, J. Xia, and S. Nie, “Speckle reduced lensless holographic projection from phase-only computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Express 25, 6568–6580 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2015 (2)

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Harm, A. Jesacher, G. Thalhammer, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “How to use a phase-only spatial light modulator as a color display,” Opt. Lett. 40, 581–584 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Simple holographic projection in color,” Opt. Express 20, 25130–25136 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

1988 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Albahadily, H. K.

H. K. Albahadily, V. Yu. Tsviatkou, and V. K. Kanapelka, “Grayscale image compression using bit plane slicing and developed RLE algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 6, 309–314 (2017).

Bernet, S.

Bieda, M.

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bryngdahl, O.

Buckley, E.

Chang, C.

Chen, C.

Chlipala, M.

Ducin, I.

A. Kowalczyk, M. Makowski, I. Ducin, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Collective matrix of spatial light modulators for increased resolution in holographic image projection,” Opt. Express 26, 17158–17169 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Simple holographic projection in color,” Opt. Express 20, 25130–25136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Endo, Y.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Harm, W.

Hasegawa, S.

Hirayama, R.

Hiyama, D.

Ito, T.

Jesacher, A.

Kakarenko, K.

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Simple holographic projection in color,” Opt. Express 20, 25130–25136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kakue, T.

Kanapelka, V. K.

H. K. Albahadily, V. Yu. Tsviatkou, and V. K. Kanapelka, “Grayscale image compression using bit plane slicing and developed RLE algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 6, 309–314 (2017).

Kochanska, P.

P. Kochańska and M. Makowski, “Compression of computer-generated holograms in image projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 9, 60–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejczyk, A.

Kowalczyk, A.

A. Kowalczyk, M. Makowski, I. Ducin, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Collective matrix of spatial light modulators for increased resolution in holographic image projection,” Opt. Express 26, 17158–17169 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kozacki, T.

Liu, J.

Makowski, M.

A. Kowalczyk, M. Makowski, I. Ducin, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Collective matrix of spatial light modulators for increased resolution in holographic image projection,” Opt. Express 26, 17158–17169 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Kochańska and M. Makowski, “Compression of computer-generated holograms in image projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 9, 60–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, Y. Nagahama, Y. Endo, R. Hirayama, D. Hiyama, S. Hasegawa, M. Sano, T. Kakue, M. Oikawa, T. Sugie, N. Takada, and T. Ito, “Color computer-generated hologram generation using the random phase-free method and color space conversion,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4159–4165 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Increased depth of focus in random-phase-free holographic projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14, 120901 (2016).

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, “Minimized speckle noise in lens-less holographic projection by pixel separation,” Opt. Express 21, 29205–29216 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Simple holographic projection in color,” Opt. Express 20, 25130–25136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Masuda, N.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, Y.

Nie, S.

Nishitsuji, T.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oikawa, M.

Okada, N.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Sakurai, T.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Schanda, J.

J. Schanda, “3. CIE Colorimetry,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System (Wiley, 2007).

Shimobaba, T.

T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, Y. Nagahama, Y. Endo, R. Hirayama, D. Hiyama, S. Hasegawa, M. Sano, T. Kakue, M. Oikawa, T. Sugie, N. Takada, and T. Ito, “Color computer-generated hologram generation using the random phase-free method and color space conversion,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4159–4165 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, T. Shimobaba, and T. Ito, “Increased depth of focus in random-phase-free holographic projection,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 14, 120901 (2016).

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shiraki, A.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sugie, T.

Suszek, J.

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, M. Sypek, and A. Kolodziejczyk, “Simple holographic projection in color,” Opt. Express 20, 25130–25136 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sypek, M.

Takada, N.

T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, Y. Nagahama, Y. Endo, R. Hirayama, D. Hiyama, S. Hasegawa, M. Sano, T. Kakue, M. Oikawa, T. Sugie, N. Takada, and T. Ito, “Color computer-generated hologram generation using the random phase-free method and color space conversion,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4159–4165 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thalhammer, G.

Tsviatkou, V. Yu.

H. K. Albahadily, V. Yu. Tsviatkou, and V. K. Kanapelka, “Grayscale image compression using bit plane slicing and developed RLE algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 6, 309–314 (2017).

Wang, J.

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Weng, J.

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Wyrowski, F.

Xia, J.

Xiao, D.

Xie, J.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

T. Shimobaba, J. Weng, T. Sakurai, N. Okada, T. Nishitsuji, N. Takada, A. Shiraki, N. Masuda, and T. Ito, “Computational wave optics library for C++: CWO++ library,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1124–1138 (2012).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. (1)

H. K. Albahadily, V. Yu. Tsviatkou, and V. K. Kanapelka, “Grayscale image compression using bit plane slicing and developed RLE algorithms,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Commun. Eng. 6, 309–314 (2017).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Ducin, T. Shimobaba, M. Makowski, K. Kakarenko, A. Kowalczyk, J. Suszek, M. Bieda, A. Kolodziejczyk, and M. Sypek, “Holographic projection of images with step-less zoom and noise suppression by pixel separation,” Opt. Commun. 340, 131–135 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237–246 (1972).

Photon. Lett. Poland (3)

P. Kochańska and M. Makowski, “Compression of computer-generated holograms in image projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 9, 60–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Makowski, I. Ducin, K. Kakarenko, J. Suszek, and A. Kowalczyk, “Performance of the 4k phase-only spatial light modulator in image projection by computer-generated holography,” Photon. Lett. Poland 8, 26–28 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Kakarenko, I. Ducin, M. Makowski, A. Kowalczyk, M. Bieda, and J. Suszek, “Study of image resolution in holographic projection,” Photon. Lett. Poland 6, 96–98 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

J. Schanda, “3. CIE Colorimetry,” in Colorimetry: Understanding the CIE System (Wiley, 2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Holographic real time projection in color

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Design and ray tracing of the holographic projection head.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Photograph of the holographic projection head and its visualization as a module in a smartphone.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Components of the holographic projection system.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Test image projected in bright ambient lighting conditions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimentally measured parameters of the holographic projection head.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Results of the real-time holographic projection with remote computing (see Visualization 1).

Metrics