Abstract

Thin film stresses in thin film/substrate systems at elevated temperatures affect the reliability and safety of such structures in microelectronic devices. The stresses result from the thermal mismatch strain between the film and substrate. The reflection mode digital gradient sensing (DGS) method, a real-time, full-field optical technique, measures deformations of reflective surface topographies. In this paper, we developed this method to measure topographies and thin film stresses of thin film/substrate systems at elevated temperatures. We calibrated and compensated for the air convection at elevated temperatures, which is a serious problem for optical techniques. We covered the principles for surface topography measurements by the reflection mode DGS method at elevated temperatures and the governing equations to remove the air convection effects. The proposed method is applied to successfully measure the full-field topography and deformation of a NiTi thin film on a silicon substrate at elevated temperatures. The evolution of thin film stresses obtained by extending Stoney’s formula implies the “nonuniform” effect the experimental results have shown.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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