An accurate phase characterization method by digital holographic microscopy for spatial light modulators (SLMs) is proposed. This method permits high precision measurement for individual SLM pixels. Based on this method, the nonlinear dynamic phase response of the SLM is analyzed and calibrated in two steps: the global phase calibration and the local phase calibration. After the calibrations, both the phase modulation deficiency and the sharp phase jump of the 26-step grating are optimized. The root mean square error of the phase grating is reduced from 1.6319 to 0.2132 rad. The accurate phase distribution control may find various applications concerning high-resolution and high-accuracy wavefront modulation.
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