Abstract

Low-dimensional nanomaterials, owing to their unique and versatile properties, are very attractive for enormous electronic and optoelectronic applications. PbS quantum dots (QDs), characterized by a large Bohr radius and size-tunable bandgap, are especially interesting for photonic applications in the near-infrared region. Here, oleic acid capped colloidal PbS QDs as a saturable absorber are investigated for ultrashort-pulse generation. The PbS QDs exhibit outstanding nonlinear saturable absorption properties at 1550 nm: a modulation depth up to 44.5% and a thermal damage threshold larger than 30  mJ/cm2. By incorporating PbS QDs into a fiber laser, a transform-limited soliton pulse as short as 559 fs with a bandwidth of 4.78 nm is realized at 1563 nm. Numerous applications may benefit from the nonlinear saturable absorption properties of PbS QDs, such as near-infrared pulsed lasers and modulators.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Ultrafast pulsed lasers that generate picosecond to femtosecond optical pulses have been extensively investigated in the fields of medicine, frequency combs, materials processing, and telecommunication [14]. Currently, the most-widely used ultrashort pulse laser adopts a passive mode-locking technique, which uses a nonlinear optical element called a saturable absorber (SA) to transform the continuous wave into optical pulses [58]. Key demands for SAs are broad bandwidth, fast charge carrier relaxation, large modulation depth, high thermal damage threshold, and simple fabrication and integration into an optical fiber system [913].

Low-dimensional nanomaterials have attracted tremendous interest from the applied physics community due to their excellent optoelectronic features [1418]. Owing to short recovery time and high third-order nonlinear susceptibility, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene and graphene-like materials with ultrashort pulse generation in extremely wide wavelength range have been discovered one after another in the past few years [1923]. Among these SAs, the main challenge is that the fast charge carrier relaxation, large modulation depth, and high damage threshold usually cannot be endued simultaneously on an individual material [2428]. Therefore, it is necessary to find a novel SA that can overcome all the above challenges and provide saturable absorption over a wider wavelength range.

PbS quantum dots (QDs) have been widely researched due to their tunable optical properties via control of size, structure, and composition [29,30]. Given to the large exciton Bohr radius (18 nm), narrow bandgap energy (0.41 eV for bulk material), and quantum confinement effect, adjustable absorption of PbS QDs over the entire near-infrared (NIR) spectral range can be easily achieved [31], resulting in the advancement of fascinating applications as transistors, photodetectors, and photovoltaic cells [29,32,33]. In the field of nonlinear saturable absorption, Asunskis et al. revealed that nonlinear optical absorption of PbS QDs depended on their surface properties [34]. Later, a 2.6-ps pulse at around 1 μm with an output power of 250 mW was observed in PbS QD-doped glass SAs [35]. Gumenyuk et al. demonstrated a vector soliton fiber laser centered at 2 μm with a modulation depth >40% [36]. The generation of transform-limited fs optical pulses with QDs was predicted almost two decades ago [37]; however, experimental study on PbS QD mode-locked fs fiber lasers is still rarely reported.

Here, we demonstrate saturable absorption of PbS QDs and generation of a high-power ultrafast-pulse erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser. Results show a nonlinear saturable absorption feature at 1550 nm with modulation depth up to 44.5%. In a PbS QD-mode-locked fiber laser, a transform-limited soliton pulse as short as 559 fs is delivered at 1563 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 4.78 nm, and the thermal damage threshold of the PbS QDs is larger than 30  mJ/cm2.

2. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PbS QD SA

The PbS QDs were prepared by a modified hot-injection method described elsewhere [38,39]. Briefly, PbO, oleic acid, and 1-octadecene were loaded in a flask in vacuum at 120°C to obtain a transparent solution. The S-precursor was prepared by adding S to oleylamine at 120°C in vacuum. Then the S-precursor was quickly injected in and let react for 30 s under argon atmosphere. The reaction mixture was cooled in an ice-water bath [40]. The PbS QDs were separated with ethanol by centrifugation of the reaction solution at 12,000 r/min for 3 min. The precipitated PbS QDs were redispersed in cyclohexane forming a long-term stable colloidal solution [40].

Under a transmission electron microscope (TEM), well-dispersed QDs with uniform size were observed, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a). According to statistical analysis on 515 PbS QDs in the TEM image, the average diameter of the QDs was about 5.7±0.5  nm, as described in the size distribution histogram in Fig. 1(b).

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) TEM image and (b) corresponding size distribution histogram of PbS QDs.

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The fiber-based PbS QD SA was fabricated by drop-cast of the as-prepared colloidal QDs on the fiber connector end using a 1-mL syringe, followed by slow evaporation under ambient temperature and pressure. This scheme overcomes the mechanical damage and guarantees high-optical-power-induced thermal damage. Linear absorption of PbS QDs is measured by a spectrophotometer. As demonstrated in Fig. 2(a), the significant absorption peak appears at about 1.5 μm, which corresponds to the PbS QDs’ first excitonic absorption state in the strong quantum confinement regime [37].

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Linear absorption spectrum of the PbS QDs and (b) nonlinear transmission curve of the PbS QD-based SA.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. PbS QD mode-locked laser setup. Inset: digital photograph of the PbS QD mode locker fabricated on the fiber connector end.

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The nonlinear saturable absorption characteristic of PbS QDs was assessed using the twin-detector measurement technique [41]. The incident optical soliton was generated by a nanotube-mode-locked ultrafast laser source (pulse width 735 fs, fundamental repetition rate 18.8 MHz, central wavelength 1550 nm). We used an attenuator and an amplifier to adjust pulse intensity. Then, the incident optical soliton was equally separated, and the PbS QD SA device was inserted into one of the two branches. The power meter recorded the relationship between incident pump power and average output power. Figure 2(b) shows the saturable absorption characteristic of the PbS QDs at the telecommunication band. According to a two-level model with SA, the solid curve is fitted to the experimental results [42]. The modulation depth of PbS QDs is given as 44.5%, which is comparable to those of most 1D and 2D materials.

3. FIBER SOLITON LASER BASED ON THE PbS QD SA

Figure 3 shows the setup of the fiber laser, and the inset is a digital photograph of the PbS QDs mode locker. The laser consists of an EDF with a length of 3  m and a dispersion parameter D of 16  ps/(nm·km), and a standard single-mode fiber (SMF) with a length of 12  m and a dispersion parameter D of 17  ps/(nm·km). The total length of the resonator is 15  m, and net dispersion is about 0.2  ps2. The PbS QD SA fabricated on the fiber connector end is used as a mode-locked element to generate ultrashort pulses. A polarization-insensitive isolator (PI-ISO) guarantees unidirectional traveling waves, and an optical coupler (OC) with 10% output ratio is used to output optical signals. Two 980-nm laser diodes (LDs) with maximum output power of 1 W are used as pump sources and are coupled into the resonator through two 980/1550-nm wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs).

Stable single-pulse mode locking was achieved when the pump power was increased to P=50  mW. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the output spectrum exhibits symmetrically Kelly sidebands, which confirm that it is a conventional soliton [43,44]. The center wavelength is 1563  nm, and the 3-dB bandwidth is 4.78  nm, respectively. Figure 4(b) illustrates the autocorrelation curve of the conventional soliton and gives a pulse duration of 559  fs by fitting with a sech2 function. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a fs pulse in fiber lasers based on a PbS QD SA.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Mode-locked pulse characteristics. (a) Spectrum, (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) pulse train, and (d) radio frequency spectrum.

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The corresponding time-bandwidth product is 0.33, indicating that the output pulse has no chirp. The oscilloscope trace in Fig. 4(c) shows that pulse intensity is equal, and the pulse interval is 71  ns. Figure 4(d) presents the radio frequency spectrum recorded at a span of 100 Hz with a resolution of 1 Hz. The fundamental repetition rate is given as 13.9  MHz, which coincides with the cavity length. No radio frequency spectrum modulation is observed over a wide span of 500 MHz, as shown in the inset in Fig. 4(d), indicating no Q-switching instabilities [45]. The signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 60 dB, indicating that the PbS QD mode-locked fiber laser has good stability.

Moreover, the PbS QD-based SA exhibits excellent thermal stability. Figure 5(a) shows that the average output power of the mode-locked fiber laser increases almost linearly with pump power. An average output power of 23.5 mW is achieved with maximum available pump power of 1 W. Therefore, the thermal damage threshold of PbS QDs must be higher than 30  mJ/cm2. Figure 5(b) shows the corresponding output spectra at different pump powers. The output spectra remain almost unchanged, indicating stable mode-locked operation states at the available pump powers. Experimental results show that PbS QDs have been proved to exhibit distinct and complementary saturable absorption properties compared to the mentioned 1D and 2D materials. Due to the PbS QD SA exhibiting an extremely large modulation depth, fast decay time, and high thermal damage threshold, it may benefit applications in the fields of high-power pulsed lasers, materials processing, and modulators.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) Average output power versus pump power in mode-locking states and (b) corresponding spectra at different pump powers.

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4. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we fabricate the PbS QD-based SA by drop-cast of colloidal QDs on the fiber connector end. The modulation depth of the PbS QD SA at 1550 nm is up to 44.5%, and the thermal damage threshold is larger than 30  mJ/cm2. Soliton mode-locking operation as short as 559 fs is obtained in an EDF laser, which is the shortest pulse among all PbS QD-based SAs reported so far. Our results suggest that PbS QDs show advantages of uniformity, large modulation depth, ultrashort pulse duration, and high damage threshold, and therefore may emerge as a good candidate for ultrafast photonics devices.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (51572120, 61504064); Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20150847, BK20161521, BK20170912); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications (NUPT) (NY217129, NY218023).

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References

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  1. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. L. Gui, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 158–164 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
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  33. S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
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  35. A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
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  38. J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
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  39. M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
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  40. J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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  41. C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
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  42. X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  43. L. Yun, “Generation of vector dissipative and conventional solitons in large normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 25, 18751–18759 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  44. D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  45. L. Yun, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for dual-wavelength polarization-locked vector soliton generation,” Opt. Express 25, 32380–32385 (2017).
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2017 (6)

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Generation of vector dissipative and conventional solitons in large normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 25, 18751–18759 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for dual-wavelength polarization-locked vector soliton generation,” Opt. Express 25, 32380–32385 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. L. Gui, X. S. Xiao, and C. X. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 158–164 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, M. Zhou, J. Weng, G. Huang, H. Xu, C. Ye, and Z. Cai, “Graphene-based passively Q-switched dual wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3709–3711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Asunskis, D. J.

D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
[Crossref]

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bolotin, I. L.

D. J. Asunskis, I. L. Bolotin, and L. Hanley, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS nanocrystals grown in polymer solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 9555–9558 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1, 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. W.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. D.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

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F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
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D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
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Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
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Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
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J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
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A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7, 842–845 (2013).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
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X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
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D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
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Tong, G.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
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Tong, L. M.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. Q.

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

White, I.

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. X.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. Q.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wundke, K.

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xiang, N.

Xiao, S.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X. S.

Xu, H.

Xu, J.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, X.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, Y.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. H.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. X.

Yang, D.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. R.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, X. K.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

Yeh, C.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. H.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, K.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, K. H.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, J.

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yumashev, K. V.

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yun, L.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Generation of vector dissipative and conventional solitons in large normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express 25, 18751–18759 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for dual-wavelength polarization-locked vector soliton generation,” Opt. Express 25, 32380–32385 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zaman, M.

T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zeng, C.

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
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S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
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H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Z.

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. G.

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. X.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Y. F. Song, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, and D. Y. Tang, “Coexistence and interaction of vector and bound vector solitons in a dispersion-managed fiber laser mode locked by graphene,” Opt. Express 24, 1814–1822 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, and N. Xiang, “Soliton trapping in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16, 9528–9533 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, J. L.

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. W.

Zhilin, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

Zhu, D. T.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. J.

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

2D Mater. (1)

Y. F. Song, Z. M. Liang, X. T. Jiang, Y. X. Chen, Z. J. Li, L. Lu, Y. Q. Ge, K. Wang, J. L. Zheng, S. B. Lu, J. H. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4, 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (3)

I. Moreels, K. Lambert, and D. Smeets, “Size-dependent optical properties of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” ACS Nano 3, 3023–3030 (2009).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. L. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. 15, 1844–1849 (2003).
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J. Lu, X. Sheng, G. Tong, Z. Yu, X. Sun, L. Yu, X. Xu, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Shi, and K. Chen, “Ultrafast solar-blind ultraviolet detection by inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 quantum dots radial junction architecture,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700400 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 10–12 (2000).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200  fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. McDonald, P. W. Cyr, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Photoconductivity from PbS-nanocrystal/semiconducting polymer composites for solution-processible, quantum-size tunable infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2089–2091 (2004).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Gumenyuk, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Onushchenko, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Vector soliton bunching in thulium-holmium fiber laser mode-locked with PbS quantum-dot-doped glass absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 903–907 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. A. Lagatsky, A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, M. S. Gaponenko, K. V. Yumashev, A. A. Zhilin, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glass for efficient passive mode locking in a cw Yb:KYW laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 259–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. Joo, H. B. Na, T. Yu, J. H. Yu, Y. W. Kim, F. X. Wu, J. Z. Zhang, and T. Hyeon, “Generalized and facile synthesis of semiconducting metal sulfide nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 11100–11105 (2003).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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T. Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Ouyang, M. Zaman, R. Wang, X. Wu, C. Yeh, Q. Lin, B. Yang, and K. Yu, “Non-injection and low-temperature approach to colloidal photoluminescent PbS nanocrystals with narrow bandwidth,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 2301–2308 (2009).
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Nano Res. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. H. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. X. Shen, Q. H. Xu, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4, 297–307 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Mcdonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4, 138–142 (2005).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. White, W. Milne, and A. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube modelocked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

RSC Adv. (1)

C. H. Yang, L. Yun, Y. Qiu, H. Q. Dai, D. T. Zhu, Z. J. Zhu, Z. X. Zhang, K. H. Yu, and W. Wei, “Direct growth of a graphitic nano-layer on optical fibers for ultra-fast laser application,” RSC Adv. 7, 52261–52265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (3)

X. M. Liu, D. D. Han, Z. P. Sun, C. Zeng, H. Lu, D. Mao, Y. D. Cui, and F. Q. Wang, “Versatile multi-wavelength ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2718 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Liu, H. R. Yang, Y. D. Cui, G. W. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Q. Wu, X. K. Yao, D. D. Han, X. X. Han, C. Zeng, J. Guo, W. L. Li, G. Cheng, and L. M. Tong, “Graphene-clad microfibre saturable absorber for ultrafast fibre lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 26024 (2016).
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X. M. Liu, Y. D. Cui, D. D. Han, X. K. Yao, and Z. P. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
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Small (1)

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) TEM image and (b) corresponding size distribution histogram of PbS QDs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Linear absorption spectrum of the PbS QDs and (b) nonlinear transmission curve of the PbS QD-based SA.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. PbS QD mode-locked laser setup. Inset: digital photograph of the PbS QD mode locker fabricated on the fiber connector end.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mode-locked pulse characteristics. (a) Spectrum, (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) pulse train, and (d) radio frequency spectrum.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Average output power versus pump power in mode-locking states and (b) corresponding spectra at different pump powers.

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