Abstract

Graphene resting on a silicon-on-insulator platform offers great potential for optoelectronic devices. In the paper, we demonstrate all-optical modulation on the graphene–silicon hybrid waveguides (GSHWs) with tens of micrometers in length. Owing to strong interaction between graphene and silicon strip waveguides with compact light confinement, the modulation depth reaches 22.7% with a saturation threshold down to 1.38 pJ per pulse and a 30-μm-long graphene pad. A response time of 1.65 ps is verified by a pump–probe measurement with an energy consumption of 2.1 pJ. The complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible GSHWs with the strip configuration exhibit great potential for ultrafast and broadband all-optical modulation, indicating that employing two-dimensional materials has become a complementary technology to promote the silicon photonic platform.

© 2020 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2020 (1)

M. Ono, M. Hata, M. Tsunekawa, K. Nozaki, H. Sumikura, H. Chiba, and M. Notomi, “Ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical switching with graphene-loaded deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 14, 37–43 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (2)

F. Sun, L. Xia, C. Nie, C. Qiu, L. Tang, J. Shen, T. Sun, L. Yu, P. Wu, S. Yin, S. Yan, and C. Du, “An all-optical modulator based on a graphene-plasmonic slot waveguide at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 042009 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Geng, X. Hong, X. Li, and Z. Cheng, “Saturable absorption in graphene-on-waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032003 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

C. Zhou, G. Liu, G. Ban, S. Li, Q. Huang, J. Xia, Y. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Tunable Fano resonator using multilayer graphene in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 101904 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, Z. Xu, X. Jiang, Y. He, X. Guo, Y. Zhang, C. Qiu, and Y. Su, “High-efficiency and broadband four-wave mixing in a silicon-graphene strip waveguide with a windowed silica top layer,” Photon. Res. 6, 965–970 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, D. Li, M. Jiang, H. Wu, X. Xu, and Z. Ren, “All-optical intensity modulation based on graphene-coated microfibre waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 410, 604–608 (2018).
[Crossref]

K.-J. Peng, C.-L. Wu, Y.-H. Lin, H.-Y. Wang, C.-H. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, and G.-R. Lin, “Saturated evanescent-wave absorption of few-layer graphene-covered side-polished single-mode fiber for all-optical switching,” Nanophotonics 7, 207–215 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Sun, L. Xia, C. Nie, J. Shen, Y. Zou, G. Cheng, H. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Wei, S. Yin, and C. Du, “The all-optical modulator in dielectric-loaded waveguide with graphene-silicon heterojunction structure,” Nanotechnology 29, 135201 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Zhou and W. Du, “Ultrafast all-optical plasmonic graphene modulator,” Appl. Opt. 57, 6645–6650 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Jafari, A. Zarifkar, M. Miri, and L. Zhang, “All-optical modulation in a graphene-covered slotted silicon nano-beam cavity,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 4051–4059 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

K. J. A. Ooi, P. C. Leong, L. K. Ang, and D. T. H. Tan, “All-optical control on a graphene-on-silicon waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12748 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, D. Li, H. Wu, M. Jiang, Z. Sun, Y. Tian, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “All-optical intensity modulator by polarization-dependent graphene-microfiber waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 7105708 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Yang, H. Lin, and B. Jia, “Two-dimensional material functional devices enabled by direct laser fabrication,” Front. Optoelectron. 11, 2–22 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, G. Contestabile, I. Asselberghs, J. Van Campenhout, C. Huyghebaert, I. Goykhman, A. K. Ott, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 12, 40–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chai, X. Hu, F. Wang, X. Niu, J. Xie, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600665 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (7)

D. Chatzidimitriou, A. Pitilakis, and E. E. Kriezis, “Rigorous calculation of nonlinear parameters in graphene-comprising waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 023105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, Q. Deng, X. Li, and J. Cui, “Lowering the energy consumption in silicon photonic devices and systems [invited],” Photon. Res. 3, B28–B46 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15, 4393–4400 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Meng, S.-L. Yu, H.-Q. Wang, Y. Cao, L.-M. Tong, W.-T. Liu, and Y.-R. Shen, “Graphene-doped polymer nanofibers for low-threshold nonlinear optical waveguiding,” Light Sci. Appl. 4, e348 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, D. Mao, L. Fang, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Graphene-assisted all-fiber phase shifter and switching,” Optica 2, 468–471 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, C. Meng, B. Chen, H. Wang, X. Wu, W. Liu, S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Su, and L. Tong, “Graphene decorated microfiber for ultrafast optical modulation,” Opt. Express 23, 10764–10770 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Shi, L. Gan, T.-H. Xiao, H.-L. Guo, and Z.-Y. Li, “All-optical modulation of a graphene-cladded silicon photonic crystal cavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1513–1518 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Q. Y. Wen, W. Tian, Q. Mao, Z. Chen, W. W. Liu, Q. H. Yang, M. Sanderson, and H. W. Zhang, “Graphene based all-optical spatial terahertz modulator,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7409 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yu, J. Zheng, Y. Xu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits,” ACS Nano 8, 11386–11393 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Thylén and L. Wosinski, “Integrated photonics in the 21st century,” Photon. Res. 2, 75–81 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7, 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7, 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 065901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, M. Hoh, B. Reinhard, A. Brodyanski, and M. Rahm, “Spectrally wide-band terahertz wave modulator based on optically tuned graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 9118–9124 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhao, Z. Zheng, L. Liu, Q. Wang, H. Chen, and J. Liu, “Fast, long-scan-range pump-probe measurement based on asynchronous sampling using a dual-wavelength mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20, 25584–25589 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, Z. Han, W. Yu, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and Y. T. Ding, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Claussen, E. Tasyurek, J. E. Roth, and D. A. B. Miller, “Measurement and modeling of ultrafast carrier dynamics and transport in germanium/silicon-germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 18, 25596–25607 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y.-M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

L. A. Falkovsky, S. S. Pershoguba, L. A. Falkovsky, and S. S. Pershoguba, “Optical far-infrared properties of a graphene monolayer and multilayer,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 153410 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adam, S.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano 5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ang, L. K.

K. J. A. Ooi, P. C. Leong, L. K. Ang, and D. T. H. Tan, “All-optical control on a graphene-on-silicon waveguide modulator,” Sci. Rep. 7, 12748 (2017).
[Crossref]

Assefa, S.

X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7, 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asselberghs, I.

V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, G. Contestabile, I. Asselberghs, J. Van Campenhout, C. Huyghebaert, I. Goykhman, A. K. Ott, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 12, 40–44 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

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Guo, X.

Han, L.

Han, Z.

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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
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M. Ono, M. Hata, M. Tsunekawa, K. Nozaki, H. Sumikura, H. Chiba, and M. Notomi, “Ultrafast and energy-efficient all-optical switching with graphene-loaded deep-subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 14, 37–43 (2020).
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X. Gan, R.-J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7, 883–887 (2013).
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Hong, X.

J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Geng, X. Hong, X. Li, and Z. Cheng, “Saturable absorption in graphene-on-waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032003 (2019).
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Hu, H.

Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15, 4393–4400 (2015).
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Hu, X.

Z. Chai, X. Hu, F. Wang, X. Niu, J. Xie, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600665 (2017).
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Hu, Z.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast all-optical graphene modulator,” Nano Lett. 14, 955–959 (2014).
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H. Zhang, N. Healy, L. Shen, C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, and A. C. Peacock, “Enhanced all-optical modulation in a graphene-coated fibre with low insertion loss,” Sci. Rep. 6, 23512 (2016).
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C. Zhou, G. Liu, G. Ban, S. Li, Q. Huang, J. Xia, Y. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Tunable Fano resonator using multilayer graphene in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 101904 (2018).
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V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, G. Contestabile, I. Asselberghs, J. Van Campenhout, C. Huyghebaert, I. Goykhman, A. K. Ott, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 12, 40–44 (2017).
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Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246803 (2007).
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R. Wang, D. Li, H. Wu, M. Jiang, Z. Sun, Y. Tian, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “All-optical intensity modulator by polarization-dependent graphene-microfiber waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 7105708 (2017).
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Jiang, W. S.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 065901 (2013).
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Jiang, X.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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Kim, P.

Y. W. Tan, Y. Zhang, K. Bolotin, Y. Zhao, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, S. Das Sarma, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Measurement of scattering rate and minimum conductivity in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246803 (2007).
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Kriezis, E. E.

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Krishnamurthy, H. R.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
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C. Zhou, G. Liu, G. Ban, S. Li, Q. Huang, J. Xia, Y. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Tunable Fano resonator using multilayer graphene in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 101904 (2018).
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J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Geng, X. Hong, X. Li, and Z. Cheng, “Saturable absorption in graphene-on-waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032003 (2019).
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R. Wang, D. Li, H. Wu, M. Jiang, Z. Sun, Y. Tian, J. Bai, and Z. Ren, “All-optical intensity modulator by polarization-dependent graphene-microfiber waveguide,” IEEE Photonics J. 9, 7105708 (2017).
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Z. Chai, X. Hu, F. Wang, X. Niu, J. Xie, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600665 (2017).
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X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7, 888–891 (2013).
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X. Wang, Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J.-B. Xu, “High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7, 888–891 (2013).
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Xu, Y.

L. Yu, J. Zheng, Y. Xu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits,” ACS Nano 8, 11386–11393 (2014).
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Yamashita, S.

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F. Sun, L. Xia, C. Nie, C. Qiu, L. Tang, J. Shen, T. Sun, L. Yu, P. Wu, S. Yin, S. Yan, and C. Du, “An all-optical modulator based on a graphene-plasmonic slot waveguide at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 042009 (2019).
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Q. Bao, Z. Han, W. Yu, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and Y. T. Ding, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2010).
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X. Wu, S. Yu, H. Yang, W. Li, X. Liu, and L. Tong, “Effective transfer of micron-size graphene to microfibers for photonic applications,” Carbon 96, 1114–1119 (2016).
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Q. Y. Wen, W. Tian, Q. Mao, Z. Chen, W. W. Liu, Q. H. Yang, M. Sanderson, and H. W. Zhang, “Graphene based all-optical spatial terahertz modulator,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7409 (2014).
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F. Sun, L. Xia, C. Nie, J. Shen, Y. Zou, G. Cheng, H. Wu, Y. Zhang, D. Wei, S. Yin, and C. Du, “The all-optical modulator in dielectric-loaded waveguide with graphene-silicon heterojunction structure,” Nanotechnology 29, 135201 (2018).
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Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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Zhang, H. W.

Q. Y. Wen, W. Tian, Q. Mao, Z. Chen, W. W. Liu, Q. H. Yang, M. Sanderson, and H. W. Zhang, “Graphene based all-optical spatial terahertz modulator,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7409 (2014).
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J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Geng, X. Hong, X. Li, and Z. Cheng, “Saturable absorption in graphene-on-waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032003 (2019).
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L. Yu, J. Zheng, Y. Xu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Local and nonlocal optically induced transparency effects in graphene-silicon hybrid nanophotonic integrated circuits,” ACS Nano 8, 11386–11393 (2014).
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Zheng, Z.

Zhong, Z.

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 261909 (2014).
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Zhou, C.

C. Zhou, G. Liu, G. Ban, S. Li, Q. Huang, J. Xia, Y. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Tunable Fano resonator using multilayer graphene in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 101904 (2018).
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Zhou, F.

Zhou, W. Y.

Z. B. Liu, M. Feng, W. S. Jiang, W. Xin, P. Wang, Q. W. Sheng, Y. G. Liu, D. N. Wang, W. Y. Zhou, and J. G. Tian, “Broadband all-optical modulation using a graphene-covered-microfiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10, 065901 (2013).
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Zhou, Z.

Zhu, X.

Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15, 4393–4400 (2015).
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ACS Nano (6)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6, 3677–3694 (2012).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Z. Sun and H. Chang, “Graphene and graphene-like two-dimensional materials in photodetection: mechanisms and methodology,” ACS Nano 8, 4133–4156 (2014).
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P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, M. Hoh, B. Reinhard, A. Brodyanski, and M. Rahm, “Spectrally wide-band terahertz wave modulator based on optically tuned graphene,” ACS Nano 6, 9118–9124 (2012).
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ACS Photonics (1)

Z. Shi, L. Gan, T.-H. Xiao, H.-L. Guo, and Z.-Y. Li, “All-optical modulation of a graphene-cladded silicon photonic crystal cavity,” ACS Photonics 2, 1513–1518 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, Z. Han, W. Yu, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and Y. T. Ding, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composites for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20, 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Z. Chai, X. Hu, F. Wang, X. Niu, J. Xie, and Q. Gong, “Ultrafast all-optical switching,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600665 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

J. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Geng, X. Hong, X. Li, and Z. Cheng, “Saturable absorption in graphene-on-waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032003 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Sun, L. Xia, C. Nie, C. Qiu, L. Tang, J. Shen, T. Sun, L. Yu, P. Wu, S. Yin, S. Yan, and C. Du, “An all-optical modulator based on a graphene-plasmonic slot waveguide at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 042009 (2019).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y.-C. Chang, C.-H. Liu, C.-H. Liu, Z. Zhong, and T. B. Norris, “Extracting the complex optical conductivity of mono- and bilayer graphene by ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 261909 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zhou, G. Liu, G. Ban, S. Li, Q. Huang, J. Xia, Y. Wang, and M. Zhan, “Tunable Fano resonator using multilayer graphene in the near-infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 101904 (2018).
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Carbon (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of GSHWs consisting of a graphene pad, a strip waveguide, and photonic crystal gratings.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Surface dynamic conductivity of monolayer graphene versus its (a) chemical potential and (b) wavelength of incident light.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a)–(c) Real and imaginary parts of ERI and LAC at 500-nm width, 220-nm height, and 1550-nm wavelength with Fermi levels ranging from 0.12 eV to 0.6 eV for TE and TM modes, respectively. (d) The MDs are calculated with 10-μm-long graphene (the insets are electric field profiles of the TE mode at 1.4 and 1.7 μm wavelengths, respectively). (e) The MDs for TM mode under the same conditions.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a), (b) Simulated MDs depending on the width and height of GSHWs with the Fermi level of 0.4 eV and 10-μm-long graphene pad for the TE and TM modes, respectively. (c) The dependence of MDs on the different lengths of graphene for the TE and TM modes with the 500-nm-wide waveguide and Fermi level of 0.4 eV.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Raman spectra of the GSHWs (the inset figure is the SEM picture of graphene pad, the blue circle represents the spot where graphene is etched off, the red circle represents the spot where graphene is protected). (b) The experimental transmission data and fitted curves as a function of input power for the TE mode. Here, the relative transmission is expressed as TToTo×100%. (c) The comparison of MDs in simulated and experimental results with 10-, 15-, 20-, and 30-μm-long graphene pads (the GSHW with 30-μm-long graphene is not saturated sufficiently with the maximum power of the femtosecond laser we use. Here, we use the fitted MD of 30.1% from the measured data).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of the experimental system. (b) Time history of the modulated probe light with the pump light acquired by the oscilloscope (OSC). (c) Time profile of a probe pulse (the inset is the temporal profile of a pump pulse).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Change in transmission of the probe light as a function of its time delay relative to the pump light. The FWHM is about 1.65 ps.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ(ω,μc,τ,t)=ie2kBtπ2(ω+iτ1)[|μc|kBt+2ln(e|μc|kBt+1)]+ie24πln[2|μc|(ω+iτ1)2|μc|+(ω+iτ1)],
J//=σ(ω,μc,τ,t)E//,
J=0,
αs(μm1)=2k0neff,imag×106,
ΔTTo=TnsToTo×100%=eαnsLeαLeαL×100%=(eαsL1)×100%,

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