Abstract

We report on the first monolithically integrated microring-based optical switch in the switch-and-select architecture. The switch fabric delivers strictly non-blocking connectivity while completely canceling the first-order crosstalk. The 4×4 switching circuit consists of eight silicon microring-based spatial (de-)multiplexers interconnected by a Si/SiN dual-layer crossing-free central shuffle. Analysis of the on-state and off-state power transfer functions reveals the extinction ratios of individual ring resonators exceeding 25 dB, leading to switch crosstalk suppression of up to over 50 dB in the switch-and-select topology. Optical paths are assessed, showing losses as low as 0.1 dB per off-resonance ring and 0.5 dB per on-resonance ring. Photonic switching is actuated with integrated micro-heaters to give an 24  GHz passband. The fully packaged device is flip-chip bonded onto a printed circuit board breakout board with a UV-curved fiber array.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2018 (5)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Abrams, N. C.

Q. Cheng, L. Y. Dai, M. Bahadori, N. C. Abrams, P. E. Morrissey, M. Glick, P. O’Brien, and K. Bergman, “Si/SiN microring-based optical router in switch-and-select topology,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2018), paper We1C.3.

Ackert, J. J.

Aksyuk, V. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Albores-Mejia, A.

Alferness, R. C.

Alloatti, L.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arney, S.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Atabaki, A. H.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahadori, M.

Barton, J. S.

Basavanhally, N. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Bergman, K.

Q. Cheng, S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, and K. Bergman, “Photonic switching in high performance datacenters [Invited],” Opt. Express 26, 16022–16043 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, M. Nikdast, S. Rumley, L. Y. Dai, N. Janosik, T. Van Vaerenbergh, A. Gazman, Q. Cheng, R. Polster, and K. Bergman, “Design space exploration of microring resonators in silicon photonic interconnects: impact of the ring curvature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2767–2782 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, A. Gazman, N. Janosik, S. Rumley, Z. Zhu, R. Polster, Q. Cheng, and K. Bergman, “Thermal rectification of integrated microheaters for microring resonators in silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 773–788 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, M. Glick, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Recent advances in optical technologies for data centers: a review,” Optica 5, 1354–1370 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, T. Shiraishi, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength locking and thermally stabilizing microring resonators using dithering signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 505–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4 × 4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16, 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Highly-scalable, low-crosstalk architecture for ring-based optical space switch fabrics,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (2017), pp. 41–42.

Q. Cheng, L. Y. Dai, M. Bahadori, N. C. Abrams, P. E. Morrissey, M. Glick, P. O’Brien, and K. Bergman, “Si/SiN microring-based optical router in switch-and-select topology,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2018), paper We1C.3.

Bergmen, K.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biberman, A.

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bolle, C. A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Bruinink, C. M.

Chan, H. B.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-K.

Cheng, Q.

M. Bahadori, A. Gazman, N. Janosik, S. Rumley, Z. Zhu, R. Polster, Q. Cheng, and K. Bergman, “Thermal rectification of integrated microheaters for microring resonators in silicon photonics platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 773–788 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, S. Rumley, M. Bahadori, and K. Bergman, “Photonic switching in high performance datacenters [Invited],” Opt. Express 26, 16022–16043 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bahadori, M. Nikdast, S. Rumley, L. Y. Dai, N. Janosik, T. Van Vaerenbergh, A. Gazman, Q. Cheng, R. Polster, and K. Bergman, “Design space exploration of microring resonators in silicon photonic interconnects: impact of the ring curvature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2767–2782 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, M. Glick, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Recent advances in optical technologies for data centers: a review,” Optica 5, 1354–1370 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Monolithic MZI-SOA hybrid switch for low-power and low-penalty operation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Highly-scalable, low-crosstalk architecture for ring-based optical space switch fabrics,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (2017), pp. 41–42.

Q. Cheng, L. Y. Dai, M. Bahadori, N. C. Abrams, P. E. Morrissey, M. Glick, P. O’Brien, and K. Bergman, “Si/SiN microring-based optical router in switch-and-select topology,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2018), paper We1C.3.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfer, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-energy, high-performance lossless 8 × 8 SOA switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E.6.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Florence, Italy (2015), pp. 199–201.

Chu, D. P.

Chu, T.

T. Chu, L. Qiao, W. Tang, D. Guo, and W. Wu, “Fast, high-radix silicon photonic switches,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th1J.4.

Collings, N.

Crossland, W. A.

Dai, L. Y.

M. Bahadori, M. Nikdast, S. Rumley, L. Y. Dai, N. Janosik, T. Van Vaerenbergh, A. Gazman, Q. Cheng, R. Polster, and K. Bergman, “Design space exploration of microring resonators in silicon photonic interconnects: impact of the ring curvature,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2767–2782 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, L. Y. Dai, M. Bahadori, N. C. Abrams, P. E. Morrissey, M. Glick, P. O’Brien, and K. Bergman, “Si/SiN microring-based optical router in switch-and-select topology,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2018), paper We1C.3.

Dasmahapatra, P.

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 5900410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Florence, Italy (2015), pp. 199–201.

Ding, R.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frahm, R. E.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

Gasparyan, A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gates, J. V.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gazman, A.

Georgas, M.

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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
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A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
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H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.4.

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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Redmond, M. M.

Richardson, D. J.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.4.

Robertson, B.

Rohit, A.

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 5900410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rumley, S.

Ruzbarsky, J.

J. Ruzbarsky, J. Turan, and L. Ovsenik, “Effects act on transmitted signal in a fully optical fiber WDM systems,” in IEEE 13th International Scientific Conference on Informatics (2015), pp. 217–221.

Ryf, R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

Saeidi, M.

Saleh, A. A. M.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schow, C.

Seok, T. J.

K. Kwon, T. J. Seok, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, L. Ochikubo, J. Jacobs, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “128 × 128 silicon photonic MEMS switch with scalable row/column addressing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SF1A.4.

Shainline, J. M.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shea, H. R.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shiraishi, T.

Simon, M. E.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smith, D.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.4.

Stabile, R.

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 5900410 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4666–4668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suda, S.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, J. Hasegawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Low insertion loss and power efficient 32 × 32 silicon photonics switch with extremely-high-Δ PLC connector,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, San Diego, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.5.

Sun, C.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, J. Hasegawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Low insertion loss and power efficient 32 × 32 silicon photonics switch with extremely-high-Δ PLC connector,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, San Diego, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.5.

Tang, W.

T. Chu, L. Qiao, W. Tang, D. Guo, and W. Wu, “Fast, high-radix silicon photonic switches,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th1J.4.

Theogarajan, L.

Turan, J.

J. Ruzbarsky, J. Turan, and L. Ovsenik, “Effects act on transmitted signal in a fully optical fiber WDM systems,” in IEEE 13th International Scientific Conference on Informatics (2015), pp. 217–221.

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

Volet, N.

Wade, M.

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, Y.

Wei, J.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Florence, Italy (2015), pp. 199–201.

Wei, J. L.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Monolithic MZI-SOA hybrid switch for low-power and low-penalty operation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfer, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-energy, high-performance lossless 8 × 8 SOA switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E.6.

Weiss, A.

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Monolithic MZI-SOA hybrid switch for low-power and low-penalty operation,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Robertson, H. Yang, M. M. Redmond, N. Collings, J. R. Moore, J. Liu, A. M. Jeziorska-Chapman, M. Pivnenko, S. Lee, A. Wonfor, I. H. White, W. A. Crossland, and D. P. Chu, “Demonstration of multi-casting in a 1 × 9 LCOS wavelength selective switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 402–410 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Florence, Italy (2015), pp. 199–201.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfer, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-energy, high-performance lossless 8 × 8 SOA switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E.6.

Williams, K. A.

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 5900410 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. A. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4666–4668 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Wonfer, A.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfer, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-energy, high-performance lossless 8 × 8 SOA switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E.6.

Wonfor, A.

Wu, M. C.

K. Kwon, T. J. Seok, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, L. Ochikubo, J. Jacobs, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “128 × 128 silicon photonic MEMS switch with scalable row/column addressing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SF1A.4.

Wu, W.

T. Chu, L. Qiao, W. Tang, D. Guo, and W. Wu, “Fast, high-radix silicon photonic switches,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th1J.4.

Xia, Y.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yan, L. S.

Yang, H.

Yang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y.

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Dasmahapatra, R. Stabile, A. Rohit, and K. A. Williams, “Optical crosspoint matrix using broadband resonant switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 5900410 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Sun, M. Wade, M. Georgas, S. Lin, L. Alloatti, B. Moss, R. Kumar, A. H. Atabaki, F. Pavanello, J. M. Shainline, J. S. Orcutt, R. J. Ram, M. Popović, and V. Stojanović, “A 45 nm CMOS-SOI monolithic photonics platform with bit-statistics-based resonant microring thermal tuning,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 51, 893–907 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, N. R. Basavanhally, D. A. Ramsey, V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, V. Lifton, H. B. Chan, M. Haueis, A. Gasparyan, H. R. Shea, S. Arney, C. A. Bolle, P. R. Kolodner, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Novack, Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, Q. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, K. Padmaraju, K. Bergmen, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “A 30  GHz silicon photonic platform,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 878107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

Q. Cheng, L. Y. Dai, M. Bahadori, N. C. Abrams, P. E. Morrissey, M. Glick, P. O’Brien, and K. Bergman, “Si/SiN microring-based optical router in switch-and-select topology,” in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2018), paper We1C.3.

J. Ruzbarsky, J. Turan, and L. Ovsenik, “Effects act on transmitted signal in a fully optical fiber WDM systems,” in IEEE 13th International Scientific Conference on Informatics (2015), pp. 217–221.

Q. Cheng, M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Highly-scalable, low-crosstalk architecture for ring-based optical space switch fabrics,” in IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OI) (2017), pp. 41–42.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS), Florence, Italy (2015), pp. 199–201.

K. Suzuki, R. Konoike, J. Hasegawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Low insertion loss and power efficient 32 × 32 silicon photonics switch with extremely-high-Δ PLC connector,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, San Diego, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th4B.5.

T. Chu, L. Qiao, W. Tang, D. Guo, and W. Wu, “Fast, high-radix silicon photonic switches,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper Th1J.4.

H. C. H. Mulvad, A. Parker, B. King, D. Smith, M. Kovacs, S. Jain, J. Hayes, M. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, and N. Parsons, “Beam-steering all-optical switch for multi-core fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2017), paper Tu2C.4.

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfer, J. L. Wei, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low-energy, high-performance lossless 8 × 8 SOA switch,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4E.6.

K. Kwon, T. J. Seok, J. Henriksson, J. Luo, L. Ochikubo, J. Jacobs, R. S. Muller, and M. C. Wu, “128 × 128 silicon photonic MEMS switch with scalable row/column addressing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San Jose, California, 2018 (Optical Society of America, 2018), paper SF1A.4.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Switch-and-select topology with MZI elements arranged in a cascading structure. (b) Modified switch-and-select topology with MRR-based spatial (de)multiplexers.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic of a 4×4 switch-and-select switching circuit. Green, dashed purple, and dotted red arrows outline paths for data, first-order crosstalk, and second-order crosstalk, respectively. The solid semi-circles on MRRs indicate on-resonance coupling, while dashed semi-circles represent off-resonance coupling. (b) Comparison of simulated drop spectra of a single MRR element in a crossbar switching device and the switch-and-select structure.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic layout of the 4×4 MRR-based switch-and-select switching fabric with insets showing the interlayer couplers. (b) Microscope photo of the fabricated device with insets of the enlarged 4×1 MRR-based spatial multiplexer, the Si/SiN intersections, and the interlayer coupler.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Schematic of a silicon die flip-chip bonded onto a PCB breakout board using solder bumps. A fiber array is attached to the edge of the silicon chip. (b) Photo of the packaged AIM chip.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic of the device test bed. (b) Schematic of the control scheme of the switch-and-select switching circuit for the on and off states.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured optical power map of the 4×4 MRR-based switch-and-select device. The red rectangle outlines the crosstalk leakage.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Schematic of test structures for (a) the Si/SiN two-layered intersections, and (b) Si/SiN interlayer couplers. (c) Simulated insertion loss and crosstalk as functions of interlayer separation for the two-layer intersections using Lumerical FDTD software. The left and right charts show the results for the Si and SiN waveguides, respectively.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Crosstalk breakdown measurement. (a) Outlined optical paths under test: data routed in path 2-2 and the crosstalk leakage to output 1 (crosstalk 2-1). Measured power spectrum for (b) the data at output 2 and (c) crosstalk leakage at output 1 with thermal tuning on the second-stage output MRR to minimize the crosstalk leakage.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Power tuning for path 4-4 showing the path extinction ratio and the breakdown in on-off extinction from the first- and second-stage MRRs. (b) Crosstalk leakage to output 1, 2, and 3 for path 4-4. (c) Power tuning for path 2-3 and (d) crosstalk leakage for path 2-3.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Normalized spectra of a set of representative paths. Resolution is set at 0.1 nm.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. BER as a function of received optical power at 12.5 Gb/s (a) for path 4-4 and B2B and for (b) path 2-3 and B2B. Insets show eye diagrams after the switch; (c) and (d) show the amplified eye diagrams for B2B and path 4-4 at 0 dBm.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Measured optical time-domain response of the thermo-optic switch. The cursors show the 10%–90% power points for (a) the rise edge and (b) the fall edge.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Component-Level Loss Estimation

Metrics