Abstract

The active/passive Q-switching operation of a 2 μm a-cut Tm,Ho:YAP laser was experimentally demonstrated with an acousto-optical Qswitch/MoS2 saturable absorber mirror. The active Q-switch laser was operated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, with an average output power of 12.3 W and a maximum pulse energy of 10.3 mJ. The passive Q-switch laser was also the first acquired with an average output power of 3.3 W and per pulse energy of 23.31 μJ, and the beam quality factors of Mx2=1.06 and My2=1.06 were measured at the average output power of 2 W.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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  38. H. Xia, M. Li, T. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, and K. Yang, “Few-layered MoS2 as a saturable absorber for a passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1.6  μm,” Appl. Opt. 56, 2766–2770 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

C. Wang, S. Z. Zhao, T. Li, K. J. Yang, C. Luan, X. D. Xu, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-switched Nd:LuAG laser using few-layered MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 406, 249–253 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Guo, “2D noncarbon materials-based nonlinear optical devices for ultrafast photonics,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16, 020004 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

2016 (6)

M. Fan, T. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, X. Gao, K. Yang, D. Li, and C. Kränkel, “Multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber for an Er:Lu2O3 laser at 3  μm,” Photon. Res. 4, 181–186 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933–25942 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. A. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, J. Liu, H. Zhang, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1  μm to 2.7  μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, M. Petros, T. Refaat, K. Reithmaier, R. Remus, U. Singh, W. Johnson, C. Boyer, J. Fay, S. Johnston, and L. Murchison, “Airborne 2-micron double pulsed direct detection ipda lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurement,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 03004 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (6)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Yao, Y. J. Shen, X. M. Duan, T. Y. Dai, Y. L. Ju, and Y. Z. Wang, “A 41-W ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6589–6592 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2  μm market heats up,” Opt. Photon. News 25, 34–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kwiatkowski, J. K. Jabczynski, W. Zendzian, L. Gorajek, and M. Kaskow, “High repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 20  W linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 395–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and D. Shen, “Graphene passively Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 947–950 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. H. Liu, K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Yan, L. Zhang, H. Yu, M. Li, W. Sun, W. Hou, and X. Lin, “Passive Q-switching in a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.319  μm,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106107 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Yang, D. Heinecke, J. Paajaste, C. Kölbl, T. Dekorsy, S. Suomalainen, and M. Guina, “Mode-locking of 2  μm Tm, Ho:YAG laser with GaInAs and GaSb-based SESAMs,” Opt. Express 21, 4311–4318 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensionaltransition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Ataca, H. Şahin, and S. Ciraci, “Stable, single-layer MX2 transition-metal oxides and dichalcogenides in a honeycomblike structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 8983–8999 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gao, R. Wang, L. Zhu, M. Gao, Q. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Wei, J. Lin, and L. Guo, “Resonantly pumped 1.645  μm high repetition rate Er:YAG laser Q-switched by a graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 37, 632–634 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

1996 (1)

M. Grasso, “Experience with the holmium laser as an endoscopic lithotrite,” Urology 48, 199–206 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Aguiló, M.

P. A. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, J. Liu, H. Zhang, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ataca, C.

C. Ataca, H. Şahin, and S. Ciraci, “Stable, single-layer MX2 transition-metal oxides and dichalcogenides in a honeycomblike structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 8983–8999 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyer, C.

J. Yu, M. Petros, T. Refaat, K. Reithmaier, R. Remus, U. Singh, W. Johnson, C. Boyer, J. Fay, S. Johnston, and L. Murchison, “Airborne 2-micron double pulsed direct detection ipda lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurement,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 03004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Burton, M.

Cha, S.

Chan, K. P.

Chen, H.

T. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and D. Shen, “Graphene passively Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 947–950 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Li, L. Zhao, H. Zhang, and D. Tang, “Vector soliton fiber laser passively mode locked by few layer black phosphorus-based optical saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24, 25933–25942 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, P. K.

Chow, K. K.

H. H. Liu, K. K. Chow, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon-nanotube-based passively Q-switched fiber laser for high energy pulse generation,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 713–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciraci, S.

C. Ataca, H. Şahin, and S. Ciraci, “Stable, single-layer MX2 transition-metal oxides and dichalcogenides in a honeycomblike structure,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 8983–8999 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensionaltransition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, T. Y.

Dekorsy, T.

Deng, Y.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

P. A. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, J. Liu, H. Zhang, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q.

Du, J.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, X. M.

Duan, X.-M.

Fan, M.

Fan, X.

J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fay, J.

J. Yu, M. Petros, T. Refaat, K. Reithmaier, R. Remus, U. Singh, W. Johnson, C. Boyer, J. Fay, S. Johnston, and L. Murchison, “Airborne 2-micron double pulsed direct detection ipda lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurement,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 03004 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fiorani, L.

Gao, C.

Gao, M.

Gao, X.

Ge, P.

Ge, Y.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

J. Geng and S. Jiang, “Fiber lasers: the 2  μm market heats up,” Opt. Photon. News 25, 34–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giacometti, V.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gorajek, L.

J. Kwiatkowski, J. K. Jabczynski, W. Zendzian, L. Gorajek, and M. Kaskow, “High repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 20  W linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 395–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grasso, M.

M. Grasso, “Experience with the holmium laser as an endoscopic lithotrite,” Urology 48, 199–206 (1996).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

P. A. Loiko, J. M. Serres, X. Mateos, J. Liu, H. Zhang, A. S. Yasukevich, K. V. Yumashev, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Passive Q-switching of Yb bulk lasers by a graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. B 122, 105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

Guo, B.

Guo, H.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

Guo, Z.

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1  μm to 2.7  μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J.

He, W. J.

Heinecke, D.

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hohmuth, R.

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hou, W.

S. Yan, L. Zhang, H. Yu, M. Li, W. Sun, W. Hou, and X. Lin, “Passive Q-switching in a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.319  μm,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jabczynski, J. K.

J. Kwiatkowski, J. K. Jabczynski, W. Zendzian, L. Gorajek, and M. Kaskow, “High repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 20  W linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 395–399 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, G.

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Ju, Y.-L.

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J. Li, H. Luo, L. Wang, Y. Liu, Z. Yan, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turistsyn, “Mid-infrared passively switched pulsed dual wavelength Ho3+-doped fluoride fiber laser at 3 μm and 2 μm,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10770 (2015).
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T. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Chen, and D. Shen, “Graphene passively Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser,” Appl. Phys. B 116, 947–950 (2014).
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S. Yan, L. Zhang, H. Yu, M. Li, W. Sun, W. Hou, and X. Lin, “Passive Q-switching in a diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.319  μm,” Opt. Eng. 52, 106107 (2013).
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J. Yu, M. Petros, T. Refaat, K. Reithmaier, R. Remus, U. Singh, W. Johnson, C. Boyer, J. Fay, S. Johnston, and L. Murchison, “Airborne 2-micron double pulsed direct detection ipda lidar for atmospheric CO2 measurement,” EPJ Web Conf. 119, 03004 (2016).
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J. Kwiatkowski, J. K. Jabczynski, W. Zendzian, L. Gorajek, and M. Kaskow, “High repetition rate, Q-switched Ho:YAG laser resonantly pumped by a 20  W linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114, 395–399 (2014).
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Zeng, L. H.

Zhai, B.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30361 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Xu, W. Wang, Y. Ge, H. Guo, X. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Deng, Z. Lu, and H. Zhang, “Stabilization of black phosphorous quantum dots in PMMA nanofiber film and broadband nonlinear optics and ultrafast photonics application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1702437 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the experimental setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Output power of the Tm,Ho:YAP laser; the inset is CW output power without Q-switch under different OCs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Pulse width of the Tm,Ho:YAP laser; the inset is typical profile of pulse width in active Q-switch mode.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pulse train in 200 ns and 400 ns time scales.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) MoS2 Raman spectrum; (b) absorption spectrum of MoS2 material from 1000 nm to 2400 nm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Nonlinear transmittance curve of the MoS2 sample versus the pump peak intensities; inset shows the experimental setup for saturable absorption measurement.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output average powers and pulse energies of the Tm,Ho:YAP laser in PQS mode operation.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Pulse width versus pump power and PRF in passive Q-switching operation.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Pulse train in 4.0 μs and 100 μs time scales.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Output wavelengths of the Tm,Ho:YAP laser in CW and PQS mode operation.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Beam quality factors of the Tm,Ho:YAP laser.

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