Abstract

Rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a member of group VII transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), has attracted increasing attention because of its unique distorted 1T structure and electronic and optical properties, which are much different from those of group VI TMDs (MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2, etc.). It has been proved that bulk ReS2 behaves as a stack of electronically and vibrationally decoupled monolayers, which offers remarkable possibilities to prepare a monolayer ReS2 facilely and offers a novel platform to study photonic properties of TMDs. However, due to the large and layer-independent bandgap, the nonlinear optical properties of ReS2 from the visible to mid-infrared spectral range have not yet been investigated. Here, the band structure of ReS2 with the introduction of defects is simulated by the ab initio method, and the results indicate that the bandgap can be reduced from 1.38 to 0.54 eV with the introduction of defects in a suitable range. In the experiment, using a bulk ReS2 with suitable defects as the raw material, a few-layered broadband ReS2 saturable absorber (SA) is prepared by the liquid phase exfoliation method. Using the as-prepared ReS2 SA, passively Q-switched solid-state lasers at wavelengths of 0.64, 1.064, and 1.991 μm are investigated systematically. Moreover, with cavity design, a femtosecond passively mode-locked laser at 1.06 μm is successfully realized based on the as-prepared ReS2 SA for the first time. The results present a promising alternative for a rare broadband optical modulator and indicate the potential of ReS2 in generating Q-switched and mode-locked pulsed lasers. It is further anticipated that this work may be helpful for the design of 2D optoelectronic devices with variable bandgaps.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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2018 (1)

D. Mao, X. Q. Cui, X. T. Gan, M. K. Li, W. D. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. L. Zhao, “Passively Q-switched and mode-locked fiber laser based on a ReS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1100406 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Rahman, K. Davey, and S. Z. Qiao, “Advent of 2D rhenium disulfide (ReS2): fundamentals to applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27, 1606129 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Cui, F. F. Lu, and X. M. Liu, “Nonlinear saturable and polarization-induced absorption of rhenium disulphide,” Sci. Rep. 7, 40080 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. C. Su, H. K. Nie, Y. R. Wang, G. R. Li, B. Z. Yan, B. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, and J. L. He, “Few-layered ReS2 as saturable absorber for 2.8 μm solid state laser,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3502–3505 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

L. Hart, S. Dale, S. Hoye, J. L. Webb, and D. Wolverson, “Rhenium dichalcogenides: layered semiconductors with two vertical orientations,” Nano Lett. 16, 1381–1386 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wolverson and L. S. Hart, “Lattice dynamics of the rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” Nano. Res. Lett. 11, 250 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 1223–1229 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. Qian, “Black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 μm to 2.7 μm wavelength,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13, 045801 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. S. Ponraj, Z. Xu, S. C. Dhanabalan, H. Mu, Y. Wang, J. Yuan, P. Li, S. Thakur, M. Ashrafi, K. Mccoubrey, Y. Zhang, S. Li, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” Nanotechnology 27, 462001 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Rahman, C. W. Kwong, K. Davey, and S. Z. Qiao, “2D phosphorene as a water splitting photocatalyst: fundamentals to applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 709–728 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Tian, M. L. Chin, S. Najmaei, Q. Guo, F. Xia, H. Wang, and M. Dubey, “Optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nano Res. 9, 1543–1560 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (11)

Y. Jiang, L. Miao, G. Jiang, Y. Chen, X. Qi, X. Jiang, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband and enhanced nonlinear optical response of MoS2/graphene nanocomposites for ultrafast photonics applications,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16372 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Liu, Y. Fu, Y. Wang, Y. Feng, H. Liu, X. Wan, W. Zhou, B. Wang, L. Shao, C. H. Ho, Y. S. Huang, Z. Cao, L. Wang, A. Li, J. Zeng, F. Song, X. Wang, Y. Shi, H. Yuan, H. Y. Hwang, Y. Cui, F. Miao, and D. Xing, “Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6991 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photon. 2, 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lin, H. P. Komsa, C. H. Yeh, T. Björkman, Z. Y. Liang, C. H. Ho, Y. S. Huang, P. W. Chiu, A. V. Krasheninnikov, and K. Suenaga, “Single-layer ReS2: two-dimensional semiconductor with tunable in-plane anisotropy,” ACS Nano 9, 11249–11257 (2015),.
[Crossref]

E. Gibney, “The super materials that could trump graphene,” Nature 522, 274–276 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Chenet, O. B. Aslan, P. Y. Huang, C. Fan, A. M. van der Zande, T. F. Heinz, and J. C. Hone, “In-plane anisotropy in mono- and few-layer ReS2 probed by Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 15, 5667–5672 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, W. Zhou, Y. Wang, J. Zhou, E. Liu, Y. Fu, Z. Ni, X. Wu, H. Yuan, F. Miao, B. Wang, X. Wan, and D. Xing, “Raman vibrational spectra of bulk to monolayer ReS2 with lower symmetry,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 054110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Yu, Y. Q. Cai, and Y. W. Zhang, “Robust direct bandgap characteristics of one- and two-dimensional ReS2,” Sci. Rep. 5, 13783 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, S. Lu, Z. Guo, X. Xu, H. Zhang, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 22643–22648 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, S. L. Zhang, Y. D. Wang, X. T. Gan, W. D. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. G. Wang, Y. S. Wang, H. B. Zeng, and J. L. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (10)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Sévillano, P. Georges, F. Druon, D. Descamps, and E. Cormier, “32-fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 oscillator optical pumped by a bright fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6001–6004 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. X. Ni, H. Z. Yang, W. Ji, S. J. Baeck, C. T. Toh, J. H. Ahn, B. Özyilmaz, G. X. Ni, H. Z. Yang, and W. Ji, “Tuning optical conductivity of large-scale CVD graphene by strain engineering,” Adv. Mater. 26, 1081–1086 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Suh, C. Ataca, W. Fan, A. Luce, J. S. Kang, J. Liu, C. Ko, R. Raghunathanan, J. Zhou, F. Ogletree, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Two-dimensional semiconductor alloys: Monolayer Mo1-xWxSe2,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2657 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. K. Wang, G. B. Jiang, C. W. Xu, C. J. Zhao, Y. J. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. C. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, H. Sahin, C. Ko, A. Luce, W. Fan, K. Liu, J. Zhou, Y. S. Huang, C. H. Ho, J. Yan, D. F. Ogletree, S. Aloni, J. Ji, S. Li, J. Li, F. M. Peeters, and J. Wu, “Monolayer behavior in bulk ReS2 due to electronic and vibrational decoupling,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3252 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, S. Chen, J. Du, P. Tang, G. Jiang, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Large energy, wavelength widely tunable, topological insulator Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0900508 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. O. Churchill and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “Phosphorus joins the family,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 330–331 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

Y. Zhang, J. Ye, Y. Matsuhashi, and Y. Iwasa, “Ambipolar MoS2 thin flake transistors,” Nano Lett. 12, 1136–1140 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. W. Lin, C. Ling, Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Yoon, M. C. Cheng, L. A. Agapito, N. Kioussis, N. Widjaja, and Z. X. Zhou, “Room-temperature high on/off ratio in suspended graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors,” Nanotechnology 22, 265201 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Zhao, C. J.

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Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 141103 (2009).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Theoretical band structure of monolayer ReS2. (a) R=12.057, (b) R=12, (c) R=11.972, (d) R=11.944, and (e) R=11.889.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Measured position and the corresponding EDS image of (a) the raw bulk ReS2 and (b) the as-prepared few-layered ReS2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), (b) AFM image of the ReS2 SA with 30  μm×30  μm area and the corresponding distribution of flake thicknesses. (c), (d) High-resolution AFM image with 6  μm×6  μm area and the typical height profiles.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Raman spectra of the ReS2 SA and the sapphire substrate. (b) Absorption spectra of the ReS2 SA and the sapphire substrate, respectively. (c)–(e) Open aperture Z-scan curves of the ReS2 SA at 0.73, 1.06 and 1.94 μm, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. ReS2 Q-switched laser characteristics. (a)–(c) Average output power and peak power versus the absorbed pump power at 0.64, 1.064, and 1.991 μm, respectively. (d)–(f) Pulse duration and repetition rate versus the absorbed pump power at 0.64, 1.064, and 1.991 μm, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a)–(c) Recorded pulses trains of the ReS2-based Q-switched lasers at 0.64, 1.064, and 1.991 μm, respectively. (d)–(f) Measured output spectra of the ReS2-based Q-switched lasers at 0.64, 1.064, and 1.991 μm, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Experimental setup of the ReS2-based mode-locked laser.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Average output power versus the absorbed pump power of the ReS2-based mode-locked laser. (b) Recorded CWML pulse trains under the maximum pump power.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Recorded results of ReS2-based mode-locked laser. (a), (b) Autocorrelation trace for 323 fs duration and the corresponding spectrum. (c), (d) Recorded frequency spectrum with a narrow and a wide span, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Results of the Passively Q-Switched Lasers Based on the ReS2 SA

Equations (2)

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T=[1α0LIsIs+I0/(1+Z2/Z02)]/(1α0L),
I=P¯outf·1+Roc1Roc·1πr2,