Abstract

Metamaterials have demonstrated exotic electromagnetic properties, which offer a good platform for realizing light absorption, photodetection, filtering, and so on. However, broadband multifunctional metamaterial absorbers are restricted in cascaded structures. Here, broadband multifunctional properties were realized by introducing vanadium dioxide into a metamaterial absorber. Through the modified design and highly efficient utilization of multiple resonant modes, both plasmonic tunable color filters and near-infrared photodetectors can be simultaneously achieved by this construction. Meanwhile, active color and a photodetection band in the near-infrared range can become tunable with the insulating–metallic transition of vanadium dioxide. Thus, the variations of rendering colors could correspondingly indicate shifts of the near-infrared photodetection bands. This method theoretically confirms the feasibility of designing multifunctional devices via a vanadium-dioxide-based metamaterial absorber, which holds great promise for future versatile utilization of multiple physical mechanisms to achieve numerous functionalities in a simple nanostructure or device.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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2017 (4)

X. Y. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. C. Song, X. L. Ma, M. B. Pu, X. Li, K. P. Liu, P. Gao, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Actively tunable structural color rendering with tensile substrate,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600829 (2017).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2016 (7)

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

G. P. Wang, X. C. Chen, S. Liu, C. P. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical chameleon through dynamic real time-plasmonic tuning,” ACS Nano 10, 1788–1794 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, J. J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. L. Ma, and X. G. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photon. 3, 2022–2029 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2015 (7)

M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, L. F. Liu, X. Yang, B. Cerjan, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonant aluminum nanoclusters for plasmonic colorimetric sensing,” ACS Nano 9, 10628–10636 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Thompson, A. Stickel, Y. G. Jeong, S. Han, B. H. Son, M. J. Paul, B. Lee, A. Mousavian, G. Seo, H. T. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz-triggered phase transition and hysteresis narrowing in a nanoantenna patterned vanadium dioxide film,” Nano Lett. 15, 5893–5898 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. G. Luo, “Principles of electromagnetic waves in metasurfaces,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 594201 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Lutolf, O. J. F. Martin, and B. Gallinet, “Fano-resonant aluminum and gold nanostructures created with a tunable, up-scalable process,” Nanoscale 7, 18179–18187 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Chen, X. Li, X. G. Luo, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Tunable near-infrared plasmonic perfect absorber based on phase-change materials,” Photon. Res. 3, 54–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hong, E. Chan, T. Chang, T. C. Fung, B. Hong, C. Kim, J. Ma, Y. L. Pan, R. Van Lier, S. G. Wang, B. Wen, and L. X. Zhou, “Continuous color reflective displays using interferometric absorption,” Optica 2, 589–597 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

S. D. Ha, Y. Zhou, A. E. Duwel, D. W. White, and S. Ramanathan, “Quick switch: strongly correlated electronic phase transition systems for cutting-edge microwave devices,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 15, 32–44 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Zhang, M. A. Kats, Y. J. Cui, Y. Zhou, Y. Yao, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Current-modulated optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin films in the phase transition region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211104 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B. J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Wen, F. H. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. Shrestha, S. S. Lee, E. S. Kim, and D. Y. Choi, “Aluminum plasmonics based highly transmissive polarization-independent subtractive color filters exploiting a nanopatch array,” Nano Lett. 14, 6672–6678 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. M. Goh, Y. H. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wang and K. Q. Zhang, “Photonic crystal structures with tunable structure color as colorimetric sensors,” Sensors 13, 4192–4213 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. L. Ma, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, Z. Y. Zhao, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Dual-band asymmetry chiral metamaterial based on planar spiral structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161901 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, 98–120 (2012).

J. D. Ryckman, V. Diez-Blanco, J. Nag, R. E. Marvel, B. K. Choi, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Photothermal optical modulation of ultra-compact hybrid Si-VO2 ring resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 13215–13225 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express 20, 13311–13319 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Q. Chen and D. R. S. Cumming, “High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films,” Opt. Express 18, 14056–14062 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. G. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 207402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. Von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5, 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305, 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. H. Chen, H. Ma, X. J. Yi, T. Xiong, H. C. Wang, and C. J. Ke, “Smart VO2 thin film for protection of sensitive infrared detectors from strong laser radiation,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 115, 28–31 (2004).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33, 73–134 (1931).
[Crossref]

Albrektsen, O.

Arsenault, A. C.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. Von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5, 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-tunable conducting oxide metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16, 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17, 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B. J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ayas, S.

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aydin, K.

Bakan, G.

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

M. D. Goldflam, M. K. Liu, B. C. Chapler, H. T. Stinson, A. J. Sternbach, A. S. McLeod, J. D. Zhang, K. Geng, M. Royal, B. J. Kim, R. D. Averitt, N. M. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, H. T. Kim, and D. N. Basov, “Voltage switching of a VO2 memory metasurface using ionic gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 041117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. Von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5, 179–184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, E. M.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Cademartiri, L.

A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. Von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5, 179–184 (2006).
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X. M. Goh, Y. H. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
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Zhou, L. X.

Zhou, Y.

S. D. Ha, Y. Zhou, A. E. Duwel, D. W. White, and S. Ramanathan, “Quick switch: strongly correlated electronic phase transition systems for cutting-edge microwave devices,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 15, 32–44 (2014).
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S. Y. Zhang, M. A. Kats, Y. J. Cui, Y. Zhou, Y. Yao, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Current-modulated optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin films in the phase transition region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211104 (2014).
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ACS Nano (2)

N. S. King, L. F. Liu, X. Yang, B. Cerjan, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonant aluminum nanoclusters for plasmonic colorimetric sensing,” ACS Nano 9, 10628–10636 (2015).
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G. P. Wang, X. C. Chen, S. Liu, C. P. Wong, and S. Chu, “Mechanical chameleon through dynamic real time-plasmonic tuning,” ACS Nano 10, 1788–1794 (2016).
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ACS Photon. (1)

Y. H. Guo, M. B. Pu, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, J. J. Jin, P. Gao, X. Li, X. L. Ma, and X. G. Luo, “Merging geometric phase and plasmon retardation phase in continuously shaped metasurfaces for arbitrary orbital angular momentum generation,” ACS Photon. 3, 2022–2029 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 24, 98–120 (2012).

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2, 945–949 (2014).
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S. C. Song, X. L. Ma, M. B. Pu, X. Li, K. P. Liu, P. Gao, Z. Y. Zhao, Y. Q. Wang, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “Actively tunable structural color rendering with tensile substrate,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600829 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

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S. Y. Zhang, M. A. Kats, Y. J. Cui, Y. Zhou, Y. Yao, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Current-modulated optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin films in the phase transition region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 211104 (2014).
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L. Wen, F. H. Sun, and Q. Chen, “Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 151106 (2014).
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IEEE Microw. Mag. (1)

S. D. Ha, Y. Zhou, A. E. Duwel, D. W. White, and S. Ramanathan, “Quick switch: strongly correlated electronic phase transition systems for cutting-edge microwave devices,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 15, 32–44 (2014).
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IEEE Photon. J. (1)

D. C. Wang, L. C. Zhang, Y. D. Gong, L. K. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. H. Hong, “Multiband switchable terahertz quarter-wave plates via phase-change metasurfaces,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 5500308 (2016).
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Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. Wen, Y. F. Chen, W. W. Liu, Q. Su, J. Grant, Z. Y. Qi, Q. L. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Enhanced photoelectric and photothermal responses on silicon platform by plasmonic absorber and Omni-Schottky junction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700059 (2017).
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Nano Lett. (4)

M. L. Tseng, J. Yang, M. Semmlinger, C. Zhang, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Two-dimensional active tuning of an aluminum plasmonic array for full-spectrum response,” Nano Lett. 17, 6034–6039 (2017).
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Nanoscale (1)

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Nat. Commun. (3)

T. Xu, Y. K. Wu, X. G. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1, 59 (2010).
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X. M. Goh, Y. H. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C. W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5361 (2014).
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M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12, 20–24 (2013).
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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T. T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S. Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936–941 (2012).
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A. C. Arsenault, T. J. Clark, G. Von Freymann, L. Cademartiri, R. Sapienza, J. Bertolotti, E. Vekris, S. Wong, V. Kitaev, I. Manners, R. Z. Wang, S. John, D. Wiersma, and G. A. Ozin, “From colour fingerprinting to the control of photoluminescence in elastic photonic crystals,” Nat. Mater. 5, 179–184 (2006).
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Nature (1)

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511, 206–211 (2014).
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Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

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M. Pu, X. Li, X. Ma, Y. Wang, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, C. Hu, P. Gao, C. Huang, H. Ren, X. Li, F. Qin, J. Yang, M. Gu, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Catenary optics for achromatic generation of perfect optical angular momentum,” Sci. Adv. 1, e1500396 (2015).
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X. Li, L. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, M. Pu, Z. Zhao, X. Ma, Y. Wang, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Multicolor 3D meta-holography by broadband plasmonic modulation,” Sci. Adv. 2, e1601102 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the VO2-based metamaterial photodetector with active color rendering.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Calculated reflection spectra of the VO2-based metamaterial absorber with phase transitions from the insulating state to the metallic state at tVO2=20  nm, tinsulator=5  nm, (a) p=470  nm, FF=0.3, (b) p=440  nm, FF=0.5, and (c) p=260  nm, FF=0.6. The solid line represents the reflective spectrum at the insulating state, while the dashed line stands for the spectrum at the metallic state. (d) The calculated CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram of the corresponding spectra showing in (a)–(c). The red triangle formed by the red squares as the triangle vertices shows the color gamut when VO2 is at the insulating state, while the blue triangle formed by the blue circles represents the color space at the metallic state.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Reflection spectra of the VO2-based metamaterial absorbers at the insulating and metallic states when the period varies from 220 to 700 nm, with the dashed trend lines tracing the location of similar resonant modes. Filling factor FF, tVO2, and tinsulator are fixed at 0.5, 20 nm, and 5 nm, respectively. (b), (c) Contour maps of the reflection spectra in (a) that are normalized to the area of the unit cell with the insulating and metallic states, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated reflection spectra with different filling factors ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 in the (a) x and (b) y directions at the insulating state with the associated filling factor FF=0.5 in the y and x directions. p, tVO2, and tinsulator are fixed at 500, 20, and 5 nm, respectively. “None” means there is no silver nanoparticle in the structure. The normal polarization illumination light is along the x direction. (c)–(e) The magnetic field distributions at resonant wavelengths of 440, 665, and 2500 nm with period p=500  nm, respectively. The filling factor FF in both the x and y directions is fixed at 0.5. The rest of the parameters are the same as the insulating ones in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Calculated colors evolve with different periods and filling factors at the insulating state and the metallic state under D65 illuminations. The period varies from 260 to 580 nm, and the filling factor changes from 0.3 to 0.6.